• Zhiguang Zhu, Y.-H. Percival Zhang
     

    Abstract

    The immobilization of redox enzymes on the surface of electrodes is a typical practice for enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) but enzyme immobilization usually results in low retaining enzymatic activities and low power densities. Here, we investigated an alternative solution – the use [...]
  • Matias Eriksson, Bodil Hökfors, Rainer Backman
     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The [...]
  • Samad Jafarmadar, Alborz Zehni
     

    Abstract

    Dwell duration of multiple-injection scheme is an important parameter, which makes it possible to shift the tradeoff curve between soot and NOx closer to the origin. In this investigation, therefore, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for various two-step injection schemes [...]
  • Bruno Soria, Eric Gerritsen, Paul Lefillastre, Jean-Emmanuel Broquin
     

    Abstract

    Despite the apparent benefits of bifacial modules, their application still suffers from a lack of visibility on the performance gain that they can actually provide. In this work, we consider the specific application of vertically oriented bifacial modules, notably for facade integration. [...]
  • Ismaila Badmus, Richard Olayiwola Fagbenle, Olanrewaju Miracle Oyewola
     

    Abstract

    This study analyses the fuel-mix and energy utilization patterns in Port Harcourt Refining Company from 2000 to 2011. The average fuel mix over the study period is 43% refinery fuel gas, 0% liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), 44% low pour fuel oil (LPFO), 8% Coke, and 5% automotive gas [...]
  • Gaëtan Patry, Alex Romagny, Sébastien Martinet, Daniel Froelich
     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the technical and economic issues arising in lithium-ion cells for automotive applications, and to indicate some potential solutions to lower the cost. This topic has already been the subject of some studies, but, although of primary importance, [...]
  • Paul Brack, Sandie E. Dann, K. G. Upul Wijayantha
     

    Abstract

    It is clear that in order to satisfy global energy demands whilst maintaining sustainable levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases, alternative energy sources are required. Due to its high chemical energy density and the benign by-product of its combustion reactions, hydrogen is one [...]
  • Motoi Sekine, Yukiharu Ogawa, Nobuhiro Matsuoka, Yoshiya Izumi
     

    Abstract

    We examined pilot-scale bioethanol production from rice straw using sodium carbonate pulping as the alkaline pulping method and enzymatic saccharification. The yield of prewashed rice straw after the crushing and prewashing stage decreased with an increase in the input in rice straw. [...]
  • Amit Kunwar, Ramesh Bansal, Olav Krause
     

    Abstract

    In modern, stressed distribution system, voltage stability is a major concern from planning and operation perspectives. Remote wind farm connected to a weak distribution system through a long line could adversely affect the voltage stability of the respective distribution network. [...]
  • Zack Norwood, Daniel Kammen, Robert Dibble
     

    Abstract

    In this article, we present performance results and analysis of a novel rotary lobe expander device. This is part of a larger research effort into the analysis and design of a small-scale solar system that would compete with available distributed technologies for heat and electricity [...]
  • Lingjun Zhu, Shi Yin, Qianqian Yin, Haixia Wang, Shurong Wang
     

    Abstract

    Biochar (BC), a by-product from the fast pyrolysis of rice husk, was activated by chemical and physical process. The activated biochar (ABC) showed graphite-like morphology and had a large amount of random pores with BET surface area of 1058 m2/g. The biochar properties observed [...]

  • Rick Arneil D. Arancon, Carol Sze Ki Lin, King Ming Chan, Tsz Him Kwan, Rafael Luque
     

    Abstract

    Increasingly tighter regulations regarding organic waste, and the demand for renewable chemicals and fuels, are pushing the manufacturing industry toward higher sustainability to improve cost-effectiveness and meet customers’ demand. Food waste valorization is one of the current [...]
  • Stanley Ngari Irungu, Peter Muchiri, Jean Bosco Byiringiro
     

    Abstract

    The cement production process is energy intensive both in terms of the thermal energy (firing the kiln, drying and De carbonation) and electrical energy for driving the numerous drives within the process line. The average specific power consumption of the case study plant was 111 [...]
  • Anton Eberhard, Tomas Kåberger
     

    Abstract

    South Africas Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program has run four competitive tenders/auctions since 2011, which have seen US$19 billion in private investment, and electricity prices of wind power falling by 46% and solar PV electricity prices by 71%, in nominal [...]
  • Mohsen Fadaeenejad, Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi, Mohammad Fadaeenejad, Mahdi Zarif, Zohreh Gandomi
     

    Abstract

    In recent years, research about the application and optimization of PV panels has grown rapidly. Especially for stand-alone solar systems there have been some problems related to first stages of design and application. Finding the optimum slope of PV panels in order to maximize the [...]
  • Sandra Eriksson, Jon Kjellin, Hans Bernhoff
     

    Abstract

    A novel control method for a fixed-pitch variable speed wind turbine is introduced and experimental results are presented. The measured absorbed power and rotational speed, together with a look-up table for the aerodynamic efficiency, are used to estimate the wind speed reaching the [...]
  • Kozo Fujiwara, Yukichi Horioka, Shiro Sakuragi
     

    Abstract

    The growth of a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot for solar cell applications was attempted using a Liquinert quartz crucible. A mc-Si ingot was also grown in a quartz crucible coated with Si3N4 powder for comparison with that from the Liquinert quartz crucible. The mc-Si ingot [...]
  • Darryl D. Siemer
     

    Abstract

    A simultaneously “nuclear”, permanent, and in-time solution to mankinds energy-related problems would require the relatively rapid manufacture of 10, 000–30, 000 genuinely sustainable, full-sized (~1 GWe) reactors. This “nuclear renaissance” would have to be implemented [...]
  • Dag Herman Zeiner-Gundersen
     

    Abstract

    This paper discusses tidal, ocean, and river free turbine functional design parameters and general considerations associated with tidal field developments. A particular focus is on the importance of considering mechanical fatigue and the associated calculation method when designing [...]
  • Tomas Kåberger
     
  • F. Lontsi, O. Hamandjoda, K. F. Djanna, P. Stouffs, J. Nganhou
     

    Abstract

    Externally heated Joule cycle reciprocating engines, also known as Ericsson engines, are particularly suitable for small-scale solar energy conversion and microcogeneration using biomass or gas effluents at high temperatures. These types of engine have been developed in the context [...]
  • Mansour Soroush, Dag Wessel-Berg, Ole Torsaeter, Jon Kleppe
     

    Abstract

    Two-dimensional glass model experiments are used to investigate the residual trapping mechanism of CO2 stored in saline aquifers. For this purpose, two proxy fluids are chosen to simulate the CO2-brine behavior under reservoir conditions. The first set of experiments is carried out [...]
  • Nickson Langat, Thomas Thoruwa, John Wanyoko, Jeremiah Kiplagat, Brian Plourde, John Abraham
     

    Abstract

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to evaluate the drying process of green tea leaves. Tea drying is an energy-intensive process which results in the removal of leaf moisture, it is essential to the quality of the final product. In order to more efficiently use process energy, [...]
  • Bing Han, Yun Hang Hu
     

    Abstract

    Solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photocatalytic water splitting is a promising pathway for sustainable hydrogen production. The photocatalytic process requires highly active, inexpensive, and earth-abundant materials as photocatalysts. As a presentative layer-structured transition [...]
  • Jibrail Kansedo, Keat Teong Lee
     

    Abstract

    This study investigates the esterification of hydrolyzed sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil using several cationic ion exchange resins. The best resins were selected based on their performance in a preliminary esterification process. The best resins were then subsequently used in the [...]
  • Vikrant Bhatnagar, Philip Owende
     

    Abstract

    Technology advances have enabled modification of the size and shape of the electronic components to the microscale, with commensurate scaling down of their power requirements to milliwatts and microwatt range. Consequently, many complex electronic systems and devices such as wearable [...]
  • Soumya Das, Suprava Chakraborty, Pradip K. Sadhu, Oruganti Sankara Sastry
     

    Abstract

    Detail analysis of microcontroller (μC)-based smart dual-axis automatic solar tracking system utilizable for different purpose is presented in this paper. Working of the proposed smart tracking system is based on the automatic rotation of photovoltaic (PV) panel depending on the [...]
  • Rajiv Dubey, Shashwata Chattopadhyay, Vivek Kuthanazhi, Anil Kottantharayil, Chetan Singh Solanki, Brij M. Arora, Krishnamachari L. Narasimhan, Juzer Vasi, Birinchi Bora, Yogesh Kumar Singh, Oruganti S. Sastry
     

    Abstract

    The All India Survey of Photovoltaic Module Reliability 2014 is an enhanced version of the survey conducted in the previous year, with detailed characterization of PV modules including current-voltage, infrared and electroluminescence imaging, visual inspection, insulation resistance [...]
  • Johannes Hepp, Florian Machui, Hans-J. Egelhaaf, Christoph J. Brabec, Andreas Vetter
     

    Abstract

    It is well known that the performance of solar cells may significantly suffer from local electric defects. Accordingly, infrared thermography (i.p. lock-in thermography) has been intensely applied to identify such defects as hot spots. As an imaging method, this is a fast way of module [...]
  • Michael D. Kempe, David C. Miller, John H. Wohlgemuth, Sarah R. Kurtz, John M. Moseley, Qurat A. Shah, Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Keiichiro Sakurai, Masanao Inoue, Takuya Doi, Atsushi Masuda, Sam L. Samuels, Crystal E. Vanderpan
     

    Abstract

    Recently there has been increased interest in using thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules, but concerns have been raised about whether these would be mechanically stable at high temperatures in the field. Recently, this has become a significant topic of discussion [...]
  • Yoshihiro Nishikawa, Kiyoshi Imai, Keiji Miyao, Satoshi Uchida, Daisuke Aoki, Hidenori Saito, Shinichi Magaino, Katsuhiko Takagi
     

    Abstract

    A new irradiance adjustment system for the light source named “Programmable Reference cell system for Irradiance adjustment by Spectral Measurement (PRISM)” has been developed for photovoltaics evaluation. It can be applied for various kinds of solar cells and illumination conditions [...]
  • Lanre Olatomiwa, Saad Mekhilef, A. S. N. Huda, Kamilu Sanusi
     

    Abstract

    In recent times, hybrid renewable energy systems are increasingly being utilized to provide electricity in remote areas especially where the grid extension is considered too expensive. This study presents the results of techno-economic analysis of hybrid system comprising of solar [...]
  • Neha Gupta, Gopal N. Tiwari
     

    Abstract

    In this review, an attempt has been made to analyze passive solar heating and cooling concepts along with their effects on performance of a buildings thermal management. The concepts of Trombe wall, solarium, evaporative cooling, ventilation, radiative cooling, wind tower, earth air [...]
  • Michael D. Kempe, David C. Miller, John H. Wohlgemuth, Sarah R. Kurtz, John M. Moseley, Dylan L. Nobles, Katherine M. Stika, Yefim Brun, Sam L. Samuels, Qurat (Annie) Shah, Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Keiichiro Sakurai, Masanao Inoue, Takuya Doi, Atsushi Masuda, Crystal E. Vanderpan
     

    Abstract

    As creep of polymeric materials is potentially a safety concern for photovoltaic modules, the potential for module creep has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. To investigate the possibility of creep, modules were constructed, using [...]
  • Kostas Sinapis, Geert Litjens, Menno van den Donker, Wiep Folkerts, Wilfried van Sark
     

    Abstract

    Building integrated and building attached photovoltaic (BIPV, BAPV) systems may suffer from lower performance than predicted as a result of unwanted partial shading. New system architectures have been proposed to optimize performance. The common approach of these new architectures [...]
  • Sonil Nanda, Sivamohan N. Reddy, Sushanta K. Mitra, Janusz A. Kozinski
     

    Abstract

    The global warming is directly related to the increased greenhouse gas emissions from both natural and anthropogenic origins. There has been a drastic rise in the concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution primarily due to the intensifying consumption [...]
  • Indrajit Shown, Abhijit Ganguly, Li-Chyong Chen, Kuei-Hsien Chen
     

    Abstract

    Flexible supercapacitors, a state-of-the-art material, have emerged with the potential to enable major advances in for cutting-edge electronic applications. Flexible supercapacitors are governed by the fundamentals standard for the conventional capacitors but provide high flexibility, [...]
  • Roar R. Søndergaard, Markus Hösel, Nieves Espinosa, Mikkel Jørgensen, Frederik C. Krebs
     

    Abstract

    Here, we present a process based on roll-to-roll (R2R) technology which allows for very fast processing of polymer thermoelectric (TE) devices and we furthermore demonstrate a simplified but more efficient way of serially connecting these devices by means of R2R thin-film processing. [...]
  • Alexander Stotsky
     

    Abstract

    Detection of blade root moment sensor failures is an important problem for fault-tolerant individual pitch control, which plays a key role in reduction of uneven blade loads of large wind turbines. A new method for detection of blade root moment sensor failures which is based on variations [...]
  • Seung Yeop Myong, Jun Hyoung Park, Seong Won Kwon
     

    Abstract

    We investigate the stabilized performance of encapsulated hydrogenated amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules depending on the deposition speed. The module products are degraded differently depending on the light-soaking environment. The modules deposited at a high speed demonstrate [...]
  • Jun Wang, Song Yang, Chuan Jiang, Yaoming Zhang, Peter D. Lund
     

    Abstract

    China is the world leader in several areas of clean energy, but not in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). Our analysis provides an interesting viewpoint to Chinas possible role in helping with the market breakthrough of CSP. We present a short overview of the state-of-the-art of CSP [...]
  • Lin Yang, Wallace E Tyner, Kemal Sarica
     

    Abstract

    Domestic natural gas production has increased markedly in the United States, and now compressed natural gas (CNG) has the potential to become a cleaner and less expensive energy source than diesel fuel for use in the public transportation sector, especially for city bus fleets. This [...]
  • Viktorija Tomkute, Asbjørn Solheim, Simas Sakirzanovas, Espen Olsen
     

    Abstract

    The characteristics of CO2 reacting with CaO in a molten eutectic mixture of CaF2 and NaF has been investigated. Calculations of the Gibbs free energy, temperature analysis of the decomposition of the formed carbonates, and XRD analyses of quenched samples taken during CO2 absorption [...]
  • Heri Yanti, Rachma Wikandari, Ria Millati, Claes Niklasson, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh
     

    Abstract

    Esters are major flavor compounds in fruits, which are produced in high volume. The widespread availability of these compounds in nature attracts interest on their behavior in anaerobic digestion in waste and wastewater treatments. The aim of this work was to study the effects of [...]
  • Nourredine Abdoulmoumine, Avanti Kulkarni, Sushil Adhikari
     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and equivalence ratios (ERs) on the distribution of products (primary gases carbon monoxide [CO], H2, CH4, CO2), gas phase contaminants (tar, NH3, HCN, H2S, HCl), char, carbon, and inorganics), and energy flows on [...]
  • Pellumb Berberi, Spiro Thodhorjani, Perparim Hoxha, Valbona Muda
     

    Abstract

    There is “breakneck” growth in the global photovoltaics market, with the global market of photovoltaic cells growing by about 47% in 2009, 72% in 2010, and 74% in 2011. Global installed capacity in 2011 was three times more than 2009. Italy and Germany are leading with a 57% share [...]
  • Grisel Corro, Umapada Pal, Surinam Cebada
     

    Abstract

    Production of biogas utilizing agricultural wastes is one of the most demanding technologies for generating energy in sustainable manner considering environmental concerns. However, though the agricultural wastes are available in abundance, the technologies used for the production [...]
  • Seyyed M. Ghaderi, Yuri Leonenko
     

    Abstract

    A study, entitled “Wabamun Lake Sequestration Project” or “WASP, ” was performed to evaluate large-scale CO2 storage opportunities in the Wabamun area including potential risks. The project examined the feasibility of storing 20 megatons (Mt) of CO2 per year over 50 years. [...]
  • Markus S. Gross, Vanesa Magar
     

    Abstract

    Offshore and near-shore wind energy is one of the major renewable energy resources, which already make a substantial contribution to the energy supply in Europe. Nevertheless, development is still in the start-up phase, with new projects being planned and implemented continuously. [...]
  • Jinto M. Anthonykutty, Juha Linnekoski, Ali Harlin, Juha Lehtonen
     

    Abstract

    Catalytic hydrotreating is an attractive method for upgrading bio-derived oils into renewable feedstocks with less oxygen content, suitable for producing valuable hydrocarbons through various petro-refinery processes. This study evaluates the catalytic activity of a commercial alumina [...]
  • Baudilio Coto, Carmen Martos, Juan José Espada, María Dolores Robustillo, José Luis Peña
     

    Abstract

    The blocking problems in equipment and flowlines caused by precipitation of wax solids is a well-known problem and large research efforts have been focused on developing procedures dealing with wax deposition. Among the different alternatives, the use of chemicals is frequently used [...]
  • Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders, Martin Verwaal
     

    Abstract

    This article presents a simple comparative model which has been developed for the estimation of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) products' cells in indoor environments. The model predicts the performance of PV solar cells, as a function of the distance from a spectrum of artificial [...]
  • Chang Bong Jang, Seungho Jung
     

    Abstract

    Due to numerous hazardous chemicals to handle, the process plant industry has a higher risk of fire, explosion, and toxic release than other industries. Reviewing the accidents at process plants in the past, it is clear that fire accidents occur with the highest frequency, leading [...]
  • Rabi Ebrahim, Ali Zomorrodian, Nour Attia, Kurt Geckeler, Alex Ignatiev
     

    Abstract

    Hydrogen adsorption in porous nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) has been investigated to determine its potential as a hydrogen storage media. Residual gas analysis and thermogravimetric analysis were used to investigate the cyclical hydrogen adsorption in PANI. A hydrogen storage [...]
  • Jérémy Faye, Mickaël Capron, Atsushi Takahashi, Sébastien Paul, Benjamin Katryniok, Tadahiro Fujitani, Franck Dumeignil
     

    Abstract

    The one-step selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane (DMM) was demonstrated over titania-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts, containing different amounts of molybdenum and prepared using two different impregnation techniques, namely wet impregnation and incipient wetness [...]
  • Abdul Hai Alami, Jehad Abed, Meera Almheiri, Afra Alketbi, Camilia Aokal
     

    Abstract

    This study investigates the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with a Fe-Cu metastable material as the mesoporous layer on which a natural organic dye is applied. The synthesis of the Fe-Cu material is done via a high throughput process that produces nanosized particles [...]
  • Soohyun Bae, Wonwook Oh, Kyung Dong Lee, Seongtak Kim, Hyunho Kim, Nochang Park, Sung-Il Chan, Sungeun Park, Yoonmook Kang, Hae-Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim
     

    Abstract

    N-type silicon-based solar cells are currently being used for achieving high efficiency. However, most of the photovoltaic modules already constructed are based on p-type silicon solar cells, and there are few studies on potential induced degradation (PID) in n-type solar cells. In [...]
  • Arne Gladis, Pia-Maria Bondesson, Mats Galbe, Guido Zacchi
     

    Abstract

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different [...]
  • Chao Jin, Langtao Liu, Yiman Li, Rongshu Zeng
     

    Abstract

    Sequestrating CO2 in deep saline aquifers is maybe the most effective option to mitigate CO2 emission. The storage capacity of CO2 is the key factor for site selection before a project is carried out. Most of the existing methods are for assessment of CO2 sequestered by stratigraphic [...]
  • Tomas Kåberger
     
  • Pio Lombardi, Christian Röhrig, Krzysztof Rudion, Roland Marquardt, Matthias Müller-Mienack, André S. Estermann, Zbigniew A. Styczynski, Nikolai I. Voropai
     

    Abstract

    In the last decade in Europe, the power generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has significantly increased. For the electric power system, the integration of a high amount of power generated by RES represents a big challenge. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) may help to solve problems [...]
  • Jan Meiss, Hannah Ziehlke, Sylvio Schubert, Karl Leo, Moritz Riede
     

    Abstract

    We present 10-nm thick metal alloys created by coevaporation of calcium and silver as transparent top electrode for inverted bulk heterojunction small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSC). It is shown that such alloys exhibit sufficiently high conductivity to replace previously used [...]
  • Robert W. Howarth
     

    Abstract

    In April 2011, we published the first peer-reviewed analysis of the greenhouse gas footprint (GHG) of shale gas, concluding that the climate impact of shale gas may be worse than that of other fossil fuels such as coal and oil because of methane emissions. We noted the poor quality [...]
  • Johannes Hofer, Abel Groenewolt, Prageeth Jayathissa, Zoltan Nagy, Arno Schlueter
     

    Abstract

    Shading systems improve building energy performance and occupant comfort by controlling glare, natural lighting, and solar gain. Integrating PV (photovoltaics) in shading systems opens new opportunities for BIPV (building integrated photovoltaics) on façades. A key problem of such [...]
  • Tetsuyuki Ishii, Kenji Otani, Akihiko Itagaki, Kenji Utsunomiya
     

    Abstract

    Nowadays, investors, customers, and even suppliers focus on the bankability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. However, few studies have investigated the annual net effect of solar spectrum. In this study, we estimate the net effect of the solar spectrum on the annual energy yield [...]
  • Tomas Kåberger
     
  • Hiroyuki Kanda, Abdullah Uzum, Norihisa Harano, Seiya Yoshinaga, Yasuaki Ishikawa, Yukiharu Uraoka, Hidehito Fukui, Tomitaro Harada, Seigo Ito
     

    Abstract

    An Al2O3/TiO2 double layer anti-reflection coating (ARC) film formed by spray pyrolysis was introduced for monocrystalline silicon solar cells as the nonvacuum processing method. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer and TiO2 compact layer was controlled by the volume of deposited precursor [...]
  • Arno de Klerk
     

    Abstract

    Investigations into direct methane to methanol conversion are justified based on the avoidance of synthesis gas generation, which accounts for around 60% of the capital cost of synthesis gas to methanol conversion. A significant body of information already exists on the process chemistry, [...]
  • Francesco Meneguzzo, Rosaria Ciriminna, Lorenzo Albanese, Mario Pagliaro
     

    Abstract

    During the first half of 2015, for the first time, the zonal electricity price in Sicily decreased below than the national wholesale price in Italy. Showing the unique pattern of electricity consumption in Italys largest region at different time scales, we identify the effectiveness [...]
  • Tobias Kohler, Karsten Müller
     

    Abstract

    The main influencing parameter on the efficiency of adsorptive thermochemical energy storage is the efficiency of the desorption process, which is influenced by the process conditions, for example, desorption time and desorption temperature, and the working pair (adsorbent–adsorbate). [...]
  • Radhakumari Muktham, Andrew S. Ball, Suresh K. Bhargava, Satyavathi Bankupalli
     

    Abstract

    Karanja is a medium sized evergreen tree which has minor economic importance in India. The nonedible seed kernel contains 27–30% oil that is used for biodiesel production, leaving the remaining nonedible seed cake as a waste product. The aim of the present work was to obtain kinetic [...]
  • Mario Pagliaro, Francesco Meneguzzo, Federica Zabini, Rosaria Ciriminna
     

    Abstract

    We investigate the value of solar photovoltaic (PV) power in the Italian wholesale electricity market (IPEX). A model is developed and applied to simulate and predict the monthly average electricity prices in peak hours, as well as to simulate scenarios without PV generation. The [...]
  • Gerro Prinsloo, Robert Dobson
     

    Abstract

    A project has been initiated in South Africa to design, model, build, and evaluate an easy to install solar fueled combined heat and power (micro-CHP) system to supply off-grid rural villages and eco-estate communities. This study describes the design of a model that offers a combined [...]
  • Alexander Stotsky, Bo Egardt, Ola Carlson
     

    Abstract

    Recent achievements in the proactive turbine control, based on the upwind speed measurements, are described in a unified framework (as an extension of the tutorial [1]), that in turn represents a systematic view of the control activity carried out within the Swedish Wind Power Technology [...]
  • Sonil Nanda, Ajay K. Dalai, Janusz A. Kozinski
     

    Abstract

    Lignocellulosic feedstock has tremendous potential to sustain the renewable production of biofuels such as ethanol and butanol. Although lignocellulosic biomass is a storehouse of energy in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose, yet lignin acts as a barrier against their hydrolysis. [...]
  • Stephen I. Njoku, Hinrich Uellendahl, Birgitte K. Ahring
     

    Abstract

    The choice of a suitable pretreatment method and the adjustment of the pretreatment parameters for efficient conversion of biomass are crucial for a successful biorefinery concept. In this study, cocksfoot grass, a suitable lignocellulosic biomass with a potential for large-scale [...]
  • Gopinathan Sudheer, Annamareddy Suseelatha
     

    Abstract

    Load forecasts of short lead times ranging from an hour to a day ahead are essential for improving the economic efficiency and reliability of power systems. This paper proposes a hybrid model based on the wavelet transform (WT) and the weighted nearest neighbor (WNN) techniques to [...]
  • Wilson Wei Sheng Ho, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan, Wai Loon Chan
     

    Abstract

    Ultrasound-assisted transesterification of refined palm oil (RPO) and crude palm oil (CPO) to produce biodiesel using a palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst is studied in this work. The reaction time is significantly reduced from a maximum of 360 min under [...]
  • Stefan Sjökvist, Sandra Eriksson
     

    Abstract

    One of the main aspects when designing a permanent magnet (PM) generator is to choose suitable PMs, both in terms of achieving the required flux in the generator but also of withstanding high demagnetizing fields, that is, having sufficiently high coercivity. If the coercivity is [...]
  • Shin'ya Obara
     

    Abstract

    The energy supply characteristic of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell for houses is strongly influenced in a hydrogen supply unit. Therefore, a bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. [...]
  • Mario Pagliaro
     

    Abstract

    Quebecs large solar power potential markedly contrasts with its poor achievements in using solar energy in this large and wealthy region of the world. Reviewing recent developments and putting discussion in the socioeconomic context, we provide arguments that justify our viewpoint [...]
  • Joaquin Sánchez
     

    Abstract

    Fusion energy, based on the use of broadly available inexhaustible resources as lithium and deuterium and with minimal impact to the environment, aims at a change in the energy supply paradigm: instead of its current dependence on natural resources and environmental impact, energy [...]
  • Andreas Vetter, Frank Fecher, Jens Adams, Raymund Schaeffler, Jean-Patrick Theisen, Christoph J. Brabec, Claudia Buerhop
     

    Abstract

    In this short communication, we present a method which utilizes contactless ILIT (illuminated lock-in thermography) measurement of a photovoltaic (PV) module and image postprocessing in order to calculate the peak power Pmpp of the module and to study the influence of local defects [...]
  • Emily C. Warmann, Cristofer Flowers, John Lloyd, Carissa N. Eisler, Matthew D. Escarra, Harry A. Atwater
     

    Abstract

    We describe a spectrum splitting solar module design approach using ensembles of 2–20 subcells with bandgaps optimized for the AM1.5D spectrum. Device physics calculations and experimental data determine radiative efficiency parameters for III-V compound semiconductor subcells and [...]
  • Yanqun Yu, Zongyu Chang, Yaoguang Qi, Xin Xue, Jiannan Zhao
     

    Abstract

    This article introduces a new technology about a rod pumping in the offshore platform according to the demand of offshore heavy oil thermal recovery and the production of stripper well, analyzes the research status of hydraulic pumping unit at home and abroad, and designs a new kind [...]
  • Hadi Taghavifar, Shahram Khalilarya, Samad Jafarmadar
     

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional (3-D) computational code was implemented to solve conservation equations based on finite volume method as to simulate 1.8 L Ford diesel engine. Velocity and pressure of each computational cell is achieved by SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations) [...]
  • Yales Vivadinar, Widodo W. Purwanto, Asep H. Saputra
     

    Abstract

    The low energy efficiency is the source of the large energy consumption issue and the rapid growth of energy demand in the manufacturing industry sector in Indonesia. The driving forces behind the low energy efficiency situation in this sector are both economic and efficiency factors. [...]
  • Weiming Xiong, Yuanzhe Yang, Yu Wang, Xiliang Zhang
     

    Abstract

    Wind power has seen a remarkable growth in China since the Renewable Energy Law came into force in the beginning of 2006. However, the contribution and the economic cost of wind power development to reduce carbon emission at the provincial level are still unclear. This research combined [...]
  • Emily C. Warmann, Harry A. Atwater
     

    Abstract

    Increasing the number of subcells in a multijunction or “spectrum splitting” photovoltaic improves efficiency under the standard AM1.5D design spectrum, but it can lower efficiency under spectra that differ from the standard if the subcells are connected electrically in series. [...]
  • Morgan L. Thomas, Ian S. Butler, Janusz A. Kozinski
     

    Abstract

    The applications of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and laser micro-Raman techniques in an examination of the dissolution, transformation, and gasification of pure cellulose and models for biomass residue under hydrothermal conditions in a diamond-anvil cell are reported. [...]
  • Allison Tolbert, Arthur J. Ragauskas
     

    Abstract

    Overcoming the natural recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is necessary in order to efficiently convert biomass into biofuels or biomaterials and many times this requires some type of chemical pretreatment and/or biological treatment. While bulk chemical analysis is the traditional [...]
  • Michael H. Stephenson
     

    Abstract

    According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, shale gas will provide half of the United States’ domestic gas by 2035. The United States has already moved from being one of the worlds largest importers of gas to being self-sufficient in less than a decade, bringing hundreds [...]
  • Published on 01/06/17

    Cover Image

    Allison Tolbert, Arthur J. Ragauskas
     

    Abstract

    The cover image, by Allison Tolbert and Arthur J. Ragauskas, is based on the Review Advances in understanding the surface chemistry of lignocellulosic biomass via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, DOI: 10.1002/ese3.144. The authors would like to acknowledge the following [...]
  • Swati Takiyar, K. G. Upadhyay, Vivek Singh
     

    Abstract

    With the evolution of the electricity market into a restructured smart version, load forecasting has emerged as an eminent research domain. Many forecasting models have been proposed by researchers for electricity price and load forecasting. This state of art introduces a load time [...]
  • Thomas Parker, Anders Kiessling
     

    Abstract

    At present food production depends almost exclusively on direct use of stored energy sources, may perhaps they be nuclear-, petroleum-, or biobased. Arable land, artificial fertilizers, and fresh water resources are the base for our present food systems, but are limited. At the same [...]
  • Thomas Rachow, Stefan Reber, Stefan Janz, Marius Knapp, Nena Milenkovic
     

    Abstract

    The material quality degradation of silicon wafers by metal impurities, various crystal defects as well as light and thermally induced mechanisms is very important for the solar cell performance and has been investigated by various groups. In this paper, the material degradation during [...]
  • Jaya Shankar Tumuluru
     

    Abstract

    The quality and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the biomass pellets produced depend upon pelleting process conditions. The present study includes understanding the effect of feedstock moisture in the range of 28–38% (wet basis [w.b.]) and preheating in the range of 30–110°C [...]
  • Nies Reininghaus, Clemens Feser, Benedikt Hanke, Martin Vehse, Carsten Agert
     

    Abstract

    Solar cells used in building integration of photovoltaic cells (BIPV) are commonly made from crystalline wafer cells. This contribution investigates the challenges and benefits of using bifacial solar cells in vertical installations. We show that those cells get up to 13% more irradiance [...]
  • Y.-H Percival Zhang
     

    Abstract

    The future roles of biomass and carbohydrate for meeting needs of food/feed, renewable materials, and transportation fuels (biofuels) remain controversial due to numerous issues, such as increasing food and feed needs, constraints of natural resources (land, water, phosphate, biomass, [...]

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