Abstract

One hundred and forty species of birds have been credibly recognised (during 1970–1990) as Kyzyl Kum desert inhabitants. They are distributed in seven arid landscapes that are unequal in edaphic and floristic characteristics. The most environmentally capacious landscape is the spates of artesian lakes and banks with grass–shrub complexes, where 83 bird species were found. The valleys of dry riverbeds occupied with tamarisk saxaul groves contained 56 bird species. The smallest species range (16) was observed in the variations of the takyr spaces with poor vegetation.

This paper also outlines the relative abundance of 40 species of birds that are typical inhabitants of desert landscapes. We studied four of their habitats, and the effects of seasonal changes on the species composition of shorebirds in three artesian lakes were determined.

Keywords

Avifauna ; Kyzyl Kum desert ; Migration

Introduction

The avifauna of the Kyzyl Kum desert has been attracting the attention of naturalists who visited the area since the second half of the XIX century (Severtsev, 1873 ; Bogdanov, 1882  ;  Zahidov, 1971 ). In-depth research of the birds in that territory was initiated by the tireless researcher N.A. Zarudny (1914) . His name is associated with the drafting of the first full list of bird species in the area, which included nearly 230 bird species. Another list of bird species (254) focused on the northeastern outskirts of Kyzyl Kum and covered the lower reaches of the Syrdarya River (Spangenberg and Feigin, 1930  ;  Spangenberg, 1941 ). Much later, route observations were carried out within the strip of the desert that includes the Syr Darya delta. The lists generated by Kovshar, 2000a  ;  Kovshar, 2000b included 80 and 128 bird species, respectively.

Of all of the Kyzyl Kum desert avifauna studies, that of Zahidov (1971) found the greatest species diversity of birds (256) and included an environmental analysis of their dynamics in the seasonal aspect.

The avifauna of the described desert has been studied relatively thoroughly. Nevertheless, there is a lack of acute observations on the ecology of almost all territories, except for scattered incomplete information about some bird species (Sabilaev, 2002a ; Sabilaev, 2002b ; Sabilaev, 2009 ; Sabilaev, 2012a  ;  Sabilaev, 2012b ). To date, the degree of fidelity of certain species of birds to certain elements (varieties or biotypes) within the macro landscape of the desert, in other words, the spatial arrangement of these animals, has not been determined. The aim of this research was to obtain that information.

Materials and Methods

The observations were carried out on semi-stationary basis for more than 20 years (1970–1990) in the West (all of Karakalpakstan) and North (part of Kazakhstan) Kyzyl Kum territories with coordinates between 41–45° N and 60–64° E. The studied areas extended between the valleys of the lower reaches of the Syr and Amudarya. The bird species were identified and the quantitative assessments were performed visually using binoculars (sometimes by culling) on routes of a total length of 745 km (230 km by foot, 515 km by vehicle). For the same purpose, 30 anthropogenic structures (15 graves and cemeteries; six ruins; three wells woven inside by haloxylon; and six settlements) were regularly inspected. Additionally, an ornitho complex consisting of 18 reservoirs formed by artesian wells with a total area of 114 ha was examined. Three reservoirs (Donkazgan, Kamysty, Uchtagan) became the sites for the observation of the dynamics of the species range of aquatic and semi-aquatic birds (waders).

Results and Discussion

It is worth noting that the total number of reliably recognised bird species obtained during the registration and counting period throughout the perennial routes was 140, which is considerably less than that obtained by previous authors. The main reason for this is that I, as a mammalogist, could not always immediately identify the species of birds that I observed from a distance. This was especially an issue in the spring, when many small and medium-sized passerine flocks of approximately 3–7 individuals migrate across the Kyzyl Kum territory and only linger for a short time to feed before flying away.

Numerous artesian lakes attract different species of gulls from the Aral Sea. In the autumn migration period (October), there is a variety of ducks on freshets of water from the wells.

Another important reason for the incomplete coverage of the specific contingent of birds in the described area is that these observations were conducted simultaneously with the execution of an epizootiological survey.

Nevertheless, extensive observational records collected for more than 20 years in the same ecological areas, mainly in the spring, summer and autumn months and occasionally in the winter, enabled the author to objectively identify the features of the landscape distribution of the Kyzyl Kum ornitho complex.

The principal measure used for determining the preference degree of the bird species and their groups within a particular biotype was a quantitative indicator — frequency of meetings or numerical dominance in species ratios expressed as %% of the total amount counted within a particular ecological trough. This study considered additional factors linked to the biology of the birds, such as grouping during the nesting period, spending the night, foraging and other moments of life, for all species strictly adapted to the local environmental conditions of their particular habitat.

In the surveyed desolate Kyzyl Kum landscape, which acted as an arena for all ornitho complex life, seven unequal biotypes were distinguished. We have presented all information obtained (Russian and Latin names of bird species, dates and destinations of their meetings, especially distribution, habitats, references, and the nature of the stay of the birds) in a sufficiently compressed form in Table 1 .

Table 1. List of bird species: the meeting points (mainly in the northern half of the Kyzyl Kum), degree rate of occurrence in the main habitats of the desert and nature of their stay (1970–1990).
No. Bird species Meeting points, date and number Key biotypes Nature of stay
I II III IV V VI VII
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1 Grey heron — Ardea cinerea Zhasankatyn 20. V. 1970, 2 units + ST
2 Great white heron — Egretta alba Tomarastau 10. VI. 1973, 3 units + ST
3 Bittern — Botaurus stellaris In V 1988г, the sole unit was observed at Chirikrabat well + M
4 Shelduck — Tadorna ferruginea Yegizkok V–VI 1975–1980 2–3 braces at a time ++ MB
5 Shelduck — Tadorna tadorna In multiple lakes, 2–3 units at a time + + MB
6 Mallard duck — Anas platyrhynchos In multiple lakes, 2–3 units at a time + M
7 Eurasian teal — Anas crecca In multiple lakes 1986, flock of 10–30 units comes during the fall migration periods + M
8 Gadwall — Anas strepera Bais, Yegizkok V. 1986, a flock of 3–5 units + M
9 European pochard — Aythya ferina Bukan, Syrtymbet 1984 during the whole summer, stays for a long time + M
10 Marbled duck — Anas angustirostris Yegizkok, Chirikrabat VI. 1986, 2 units, rare species + M
11 Garganey — Anas querquedula Donkagan, Uchagatch VI. 1987, 3 units, Khodzhahmet 2 units in Х + M
12 Common shoveler — Anas clypeata Donkagan, Uchagatch V. 1985, 2 units + M
13 Pariah kite — Milvus migrans Donkagan, Uchagatch IV. 1974, 1 unit sailing + ST
14 Pallas' seal eagle — Haliaeetus leucoryphus Murzali IV. 1973г, 1 парящая в воздухе особь + ST
15 Accipiter badius Prevalent + ++ + + + M
16 Long-legged buzzard — Buteo rufinus Prevalent ++ ++ + + MB
17 War eagle — Aquila chrysaetos Donkazgan IV. 1989, 1 sailing unit + MB
18 Imperial eagle — Aquila heliaca Observed frequently + ++ + MB
19 Steppe eagle — Aquila rapax Observed frequently in the air + + ++ + + П
20 Vulture — Neophron percnopterus IV–V + + ST
21 Griffon vulture — Gyps fulvus Arrive IV–V from the mountains surrounding the desert + + ST
22 Serpent eagle — Circaetus gallicus Rare bird, nests along the Zhanadarya valley + ++ MB
23 Pallid harrier — Circus macrourus Chirikrabat, Kekreli 3. VI. 1983 is observed frequently + + M
24 Marsh harrier — Circus aeruginosus Observed frequently in all of the territory ++ M
25 Common kestrel — Falco tinnunculus Observed frequently in all of the territory + + + + ++ ++ + M
26 Lesser kestrel — Falco naumanni Prevalent + + + M
27 Quail — Coturnix coturnix Prevalent ++ ++ + + M
28 Pheasant — Phasianus colchicus Along Zhandarya, Chirikrabat, Irkebai since 1963 when the Syrdarya water was launched ++ S
29 Crane — Grus grus Balzhan, Kamysty 25. VI. 1973, IV during the migration period stop for rest + + + BS
30 Jack — Otis undulata Prevalent + ++ + MB
31 Coot — Fulica atra Zhasankatyn, Bukan V, VI, IX. 1973 big flocks on these lakes ++ MB
32 Moorhen — Gallinula chloropus Suieyubai, Chirikrabat V. 1986, 1987 2–3 units + M
33 Swain — Rallus aquaticus Bestam V. 1987, 1 особь + M
34 Porzana parva Chirikrabat, Zhyndybulak V. 1987, 2 units + M
35 Stone curlew — Burhinus oedicnemus Prevalent + ++ ++ MB
36 Collared pratincole — Glareola pratincola Saktagan V. 1988, big flock (25–30 units) flewied from east to west + + M
37 Little ringed plover — Charadrius dubius Prevalent around artesian wells from 15 to 30 units ++ MB
38 Kentish plover — Charadrius alexandrinus Prevalent at the banks of the water spates ++ MB
39 Thick plover — Charadrius leschenaultii Prevalent in the whole desert ++ ++
40 Caspian plover — Charadrius asiaticus Prevalent ++ ++ MB
41 Lapwing — Vanellus vanellus Akbuget, Aldabai 2 and 14. Х. 1987 were observed, 2–3 units + BS
42 White-tailed lapwing — Vanellochettusia leucura Present in all of the artesian spates, stays for the whole summer ++ MB
43 Turnstone — Arenaria interpres Present in all of the lakes but does not stays for the whole summer ++ BS
44 Curlew — Calidris ferruginea Present on all of the water spates ++ M
45 Stint — Calidris minuta Flocks are present in almost all of the lakes until October ++ BS
46 Sandpiper — Calidris mauri At Donkazgan and Khatsha lakes, 1 units on 3 Dec. IX 1987 + M
47 Ruff — Philomachus pugnax Uchagatch (rare), 1 unit, V 1989. + BS
48 Sandpiper — Tringa ochropus Donkazgan, there are many on every lake 1985–1990. ++ BS
49 Fifi — Tringa glareola Uchagatch, Yegizkok V–VI. 1987, 1988. + BS
50 Greenshank — Tringa nebularia Donkazgan IV. 1987, 1 unit passed by + BS
51 Tringa totanus Yegizkok, Kamysty, Uchagatch IV–V 1987–1990. + BS
52 Tringa stagnatilis Uchagatch V. 1987–1988, many ++ M
53 Tringa hypoleucos Donkazgan, Kamysty IV. 1987, 1 units + BS
54 Tringa cinerea Donkazgan IV. 1987, 2 units, Uchagatch V 3 units + BS
55 Godwit — Limosa limosa Donkazgan IV. 1987, 2 units + BS
56 Curlew — Numinous arquata Donkazgan IV. 1987, 2 units + BS
57 Red-necked phalarope — Phalaropus lobatus Donkazgan IV. 1987–1990, flock of 10–30 units stays till until late fall ++ MB
58 Stilt — Himantopus himantopus Donkazgan, Beltam, Uchagatch 1987–1990. 4–18 units stays for the whole summer ++ MB
59 Snipe — Gallinago gallinago Kamysty, Khatsha IV–X. 1986, 1987, 2–3 units + M
60 Oystercatcher — Haematopus ostralegus Uchagatch V–VI, 1987г. sporadic appearances + M
61 Black-bellied sandgrouse — Pterocles orientalis Prevalent, the majority leaves for winter, only the one-third part of them stays ++ ++ + + + + MB
62 Tailed sandgrouse — Pterocles alchata Prevalent, minor group stays for winter ++ ++ + + + + MB
63 Saja — Syrrhaptes paradoxus Prevalent, almost never stays for winter ++ ++ + + + + MB
64 Dove — Columba libia Prevalent, flock from 2 units to 100 ++ S
65 Common turtledove — Streptopelia turtur Along Zhanadarye, Chabankazgan 1970–1972. ++ ++ S
66 Small dove — Streptopelia senegalensis Along Zhanadarye: Irkebai, Bais, Donkazgan etc., nests in the saxaul crown + + S
67 Cuckoo — Cuculus canorus Prevalent V–VI + + + ПГ
68 Eagle owl — Bubo bubo Prevalent ++ + S
69 Little owl — Athene noctua Prevalent + ++ S
70 Common nighthawk — Caprimulgus europaeus Prevalent ++ + + + MB
71 Dun nightjar — Caprimulgus aegyptius Burn 21. IV. 1986 ++ MB
72 Common swift — Apus apus Murzaly, Bukan V. 1986, appears by spots + + MB
73 Roller — Coracias garrulus Prevalent in cliff places of dry riverbed of Zhanadarya ++ MB
74 Kingfisher — Alcedo atthis В V. 1988. Chirikrabat 1 unit for the entire observation period + M
75 Green bee-eater — Merops superciliosus Prevalent по Zhanadarye: Kamysty, Akchukur, Ongar ++ MB
76 Hoopoe — Upupa epops Prevalent + + ++ + MB
77 Winged figure — Dendrocopos albipennis Along Zhanadarye Chirikrabart, culled VI. 1982 + S
78 Black bird — Melanocorypha yeltoniensis Kamysty IV, 1987. 1 unit + BS
79 Crested lark — Galerida cristata Prevalent in small flocks + ++ + + + + S
80 Grey bird — Calandrella rufescens Prevalent + ++ + + + + + S
81 Short-toed lark — Calandrella cinerea Prevalent ++ ++ + ++ + + + MB
82 Barn swallow — Hirundo rustica Prevalent ++ MB
83 Yellow wagtail — Motacilla flava Prevalent, arrives in IV–V and IX–X ++ MB
84 Motacilla lutea Prevalent, arrive in IV and IX–X, in some places dwell for during the whole summer ++ BS
85 Citrine wagtail — Motacilla citreola Prevalent, stay for summer ++ BS
86 White wagtail — Motacilla alba Prevalent, arrive in IV and IX–X + + + + + + ++ BS
87 Grey shrike — Lanius excubitor Prevalent, stays from III till VIII–IX ++ ++ + MB
88 Long-tailed shrike — Lanius schach Karabaskoprik V. 1987 1 unit, was observed only one time + BS
89 Shrike — Lanius phoenicuroides Donkazgan, Gazly, Chirikrabat IV. 1988, 1 unit + MB
90 Hypocolius ampelinus Donkazgan, Gazly, Chirikrabat IV. 1988, 1 unit + BS
91 Waxwing — Bombycilla garrulus Kekreli V. 1989г., 1 unit + BS
92 Mistle thrush — Turdus viscivorus From X/1986 till IV/1987 one bird was observed in the town park of Nukus (western Kyzylkum) + BS
93 Blackbird — Turdus merula Kekreli IV. 1989, the only meeting point + BS
94 Wheatear — Oenanthe оenanthe Prevalent, arrives from the third ten-day period III and stays till VIII–IX + + ++ + MB
95 Desert wheatear — Oenanthe deserti Prevalent, stays till late fall + + + ++ + MB
96 Pied wheatear — Oenanthe pleschanka Prevalent, stays till Х + ++ MB
97 Black-necked heater — Oenanthe finschii Prevalent, leaves in the beginning of IX + ++ MB
98 Oenanthe isabellina Prevalent, leaves in VIII–IX + ++ + ++ + MB
99 Black gavel — Saxicola caprata Kaumbet, Gazly V. 1987., 2 units + BS
100 Common redstart — Phoenicurus phoenicurus Kamysty, Kekreli IV. 1989, 2 units + BS
101 Bluethroat — Luscinia svecica Donkazgan Х. 1987, 1 unit + BS
102 European robin — Erithacus rubecula Kekreli V. 1987, 1 unit + BS
103 Cercotrichas galactotes Prevalent along the valley of dry riverbed of Zhanadarya from IV till VIII + ++ MB
104 Panurus biarmicus Zhyndybulak 01. 1988, 6 units ++ S
105 Aegithalos caudatus Kamysty, Sazdy Х. 1988–1989, 5–7 units Nomadic bird + M
106 Cettia cetti Prevalent + + M
107 Moustached warbler — Luscinia melanopogon Kamysty, Chabankazgan, Irkebai V. 1989, 2–3 units + MB
108 Nightingale cricket — Locustella luscinioides Prevalent + + MB
109 Acrocephalus arundinaceus Prevalent ++ MB
110 Reed warbler — Acrocephalus seirpaceus Prevalent ++ MB
111 Indian warbler — Acrocephalus agricola Prevalent + M
112 Hippolais languida Sazdy, Chirikrabat IV–VI. 1988, 5 units + + M
113 Hippolais caligata Khodzhahmet IX–X. 1989, 3 units + M
114 Hippolais pallida Kamysty, Bais, Irkebai VI. 1990 + M
115 Sylvia curruca Kamysty, Bais, Irkebai VI. 1990 + M
116 Desert warbler — Sylvia nana Prevalent, leaves upon the termination of reproduction + + ++ ++ MB
117 Sylvia mustacea Prevalent + ++ + + M
118 Turdus philomelos Prevalent in the shrubbery + + MB
119 Remiz coronatus Area of the cemetery Khorsan North eastern Kyzylkum IX.1972, valley of Syrdarya + M
120 Emberiza bruniceps The bird is omnipresent + ++ + + + MB
121 Emberiza schoeniclus Prevalent around the artesian wells in the shrubbery + ++ ++ BS
122 Buckskin reel — Rhodospiza obsoleta Prevalent along Zhanadarya valley ++ + + ++ S
123 Bullfinch — Bucanetes githagineus Kekreli Х. 1987, minor flocks appear only in fall period + BS
124 Carpodacus erythrinus Kekreli V. 1987 and 1989, 4–5 units, fed with elm fruit + BS
125 Loxia curvirostra Kekreli Х. 1988, 1 unit (dead body — probably the bird stroke) + BS
126 Reel — Rhodospiza obsoleta Kekreli, Khodzhahmet Х. 1987, flock of 5 to 7 birds + BS
127 House sparrow — Passer domesticus Prevalent in little colonies + ++ S
128 Passer hispaniolensis Prevalent in little flocks nesting in the tall shrubs ++ MB
129 Pander sparrow — Passer ammodendry Prevalent, flocks of 3–5 units ++ + M
130 Sparrow — Passer montanus Significant colonies around the lakes (Kamysty, Yegizkok, Murzali) V–VI. 1987–1988 numerous nesting ++ MB
131 Desert sparrow — Passer simlex Aktam, Koskuduk, Manas, Borly V. 1987, nesting by family couples + S
132 Common starling — Sturnus vulgaris Prevalent along Zhanadarye, fly away in Х by numerous flocks + ++ MB
133 Pastor — Pastor roseus Suieubai, Chirikrabat in the beginning of V. 1987 and 1989, only 12 units passed by + BS
134 Myna — Acridotheres tristis Shukurhak, Chabankazgan, Kekreli and others, there were many ++ S
135 Desert raven — Corvus ruficollis Prevalent, the key condition for that are the tall shrubs for nesting ++ + + + S
136 Crow (black, grey) — Corvus corone Prevalent, the big influx in fall since October + + + + + + + M
137 Rook — Corvus frugilegus Prevalent + + + + + + BS
138 Jackdaw — Corvus monedula Prevalent ++ + + + M
139 Podoces panderi Prevalent ++ S
140 Magpie — Pica pica Prevalent ++ ++ S
Number of species 16 37 56 32 30 30 83

Biotypes: I — Takyrs naked or with spaced sagebrush Anabasis association;

II — Takyr plain with absinthial gramineous herbs, Alhagi thickets and strong saxaul bushes (khaki);

III — Valleys of the dry riverbeds, occupied with tamarisk saxaul groves;

IV — Sands with ephemeral Incana shrub grouping;

V — Clayey stony hummocks, steepers, rocky outcrops and their depressions with sparse shrubs;

VI — Anthropogenic structures (houses, ruins, wells with walls furred by saxaul, cemeteries, etc.);

VII — Spates of the artesian wells with reed grass and bush banks.

Notes: ST — Arrives for short term; BS — Migrating with brief stops;

MB — Migratory breeding; S — Sedentary species; M — Migrating but stay for the whole warm period, nesting not identified;

+ — The species is rare and does not stay long; ++ — The species is frequently present and stays for long period.

⁎. Arriving from the neighbouring mountains, these birds (sometimes up to 20–30 individuals) concentrate around livestock farms in places where that have dead lambs, where they that are taken after removing theiral of skins (IV–V).

Table 1 clearly shows that among the seven types of landscape, the most environmentally intensive are: freshets of the artesian lakes and their banks with grass–shrub vegetation complexes, where 83 bird species were found and the valley of dry riverbeds occupied by tamarisk saxaul groves, where 56 bird species were found. The smallest species range (16) was in landscapes with different variations of takyr spaces with poor vegetation. Only particular vermins fly to this area for a broad overview of their victims. Additionally, there are grouse flocks that gather there, especially after rainfall, and species of cursorials that are able to arrange a clutch of eggs directly on an open place without nesting. In the other landscape varieties, 30 to 37 species of birds were observed that were well-adapted to the elements of the local environment.

It should be noted that some of the species listed in Table 1 , such as vermins (Levant sparrowhawk, steppe eagle, and kestrel) and others (stone curlew, sandgrouse, larks, wagtails, heaters, ravens, and rooks), were found in a variety of landscapes due to their eurytopic lifestyle, although the extent of their occurrence is much higher in their preferred habitats.

The quantitative material obtained in the seasonal recordings is described in Table 2 , which shows the abundance of 40 typical desert species of birds that inhabit the four different biotypes of the Kyzyl Kum macro landscape. Overall, the area is dominated by groups of larks, grouses, warblers and heaters in the four ornithocenosis studied. However, closer analysis of the extent of their distribution revealed the following trend: larks are more attracted to ephemeral incana sites; sandgrouses tend to prefer sagebrush cereal associations on the takyr plain; warblers prefer bushes; and wheaters are most attracted to the sandy tracts of the uniformly dense settlement (colony) of sanderlings. These are the ecological characteristics and spatial distribution features of the individual groups studied within this single macro landscape, although it appears that these groups live side by side.

Table 2. Relative abundance (in %%) of the most common birds for in Kyzyl Kum, in descending order of totals, in their background biotypes (IV–VI, IX–X 1987–1990).
No. Biotypes (landscape variety) I II III IV Total
Birds Of birds  % of species
Route in km 75 120 100 120 On 415 km
Birds counted (number) 587 876 1025 1271 3759
1 Larks (grey, small) — C. rufescens , C. cinerea 29.0 31.0 20.0 35.4 1095 29.1
2 Black-bellied sandgrouse — P. orientalis 18.8 20.5 9.2 13.0 554 14.7
3 Tailed sandgrouse — P. alchata 18.2 19.4 9.3 12.0 527 14.0
4 Saja — Saccharomyces paradoxus 17.0 12.0 6.1 8.2 372 10.0
5 Desert warbler — S. nana 1.7 7.3 6.8 175 4.7
6 Grey shrike — L. excubitor 1.7 3.2 3.4 91 2.4
7 O. isabellina 2.0 1.4 2.0 3.8 92 2.4
8 Crested lark — G. cristata 0.5 1.9 4.1 1.8 81 2.1
9 Buzzard — B. rufinus 2.9 3.1 1.5 74 2.0
10 Buckskin reel — R. obsoleta 6.8 70 1.9
11 White wagtail — M. alba 3.4 0.9 2.2 1.6 71 1.9
12 Sparrow — P. montanus 0.9 4.4 1.2 68 1.9
13 Desert wheatear — O. deserti 1.7 0.5 1.5 3.0 67 1.8
14 E. bruniceps 1.0 2.5 1.0 48 1.4
15 Tugai nightingale — C. galactotes 0.9 3.6 45 1.2
16 Stone curlew — Burhinus aedicnemus 2.4 0.7 0.4 25 0.7
17 House sparrow — P. domesticus 2.0 25 0.7
18 S. curruca 2.0 21 0.5
19 S. mystacea 1.9 20 0.5
20 Thick plover — C. leschenaultii 3.2 18 0.5
21 Caspian plover — C. asiaticus 3.0 17 0.4
22 Roller — C. garrulus 1.6 17 0.4
23 Green bee-eater — M. superciliosus 1.6 16 0.4
24 H. languida 1.5 15 0.4
25 O. finschii 1.1 14 0.4
26 Quail — C. coturnix 0.2 0.3 0.4 14 0.4
27 Cuckoo — C. canorus 0.3 0.8 0.2 13 0.3
28 Kestrel — F. tinnunculus 1.2 12 0.3
29 Wheatear — O. oenanthe 0.2 0.8 12 0.3
30 Desert raven — C. ruficollis 0.5 0.5 0.2 11 0.3
31 Houbara bustard — O. undulata 0.8 0.7 11 0.3
32 Ground jay — P. panderi 0.8 10 0.2
33 Shrike — L. phoenicuroides 0.9 9 0.2
34 Owlet — A. noctua 0.3 0.2 0.4 10 0.3
35 Common nighthawk — C. europaeus 0.2 0.3 0.3 9 0.2
36 Pied wheatear — O. pleschanka 0.2 0.5 9 0.2
37 Magpie — P. pica 0.8 8 0.2
38 Common turtledove — S. turtur 0.3 0.2 6 0.2
39 U. epops 0.5 5 0.1
40 Serpent eagle — C. gallicus 0.3 3 0.1

Note: landscape names and generic species names are given in the Table 1 .

Given the lack of knowledge of the lifestyles of the multiple and species abundant groups of waterbirds in the Kyzyl Kum landscape, in 1987, 4-fold (IV–V and IX–X) surveys were performed on three selected water spates of artesian lakes (Table 3 ). Each observational tour was intended to identify the range of bird species in the given lake community, the number of members of each group, and the date of absence (departure) of each species.

Table 3. Seasonal aspect of occurrence (%) of some wetland waders on the spates of three artesian wells in Northern Kyzylkum (single data counts for 10–20 min in for each round of observation, 1987).
No. Points, approximate area of the bodies of water and dates survey Donkazgan (3.5 ha) Kamysty (3.0 ha) Uchagach (1.5 ha) Total of birds
Birds 12. IV 18. V 12. IX 5. X 19. IV 15. V 10. IX 3. X 20. IV 20. V 15. IX 10. X Abs  %
Birds counted in total 165 164 21 17 132 142 20 5 177 234 20 12 1109
1 Red-necked phalarope — P. lobatus 16.3 15.3 71.2 70.5 8.4 10.5 65.0 100 11.8 11.9 75.0 75.0 196 17.8
2 Sandpiper — T. ochropus 18.1 12.8 18.9 16.0 16.5 15.8 169 15.2
3 Little ringed plover — C. dubius 16.9 18.9 10.0 11.3 11.9 5.0 14.5 11.9 20.0 149 13.5
4 Stint — C. minuta 15.1 4.4 17.5 9.0 5.0 15.8 13.7 128 11.5
5 Kentish plover — C. alexandrinus 6.6 9.2 5.3 9.2 25.0 10.0 9.0 90 8.2
6 Wood sandpiper — T. glareola 8.4 10.3 5.3 6.3 6.2 6.5 73 6.6
7 White tailed lapwing — V. leucura 2.4 7.3 6.0 7.0 9.0 8.5 70 6.3
8 Stilt — H. himantopus 6.0 7.3 4.5 5.6 2.2 7.7 58 5.2
9 Snipe — G. gallinago 1.2 3.0 9.4 14.0 2.2 2.1 1.7 1.7 5.0 25.0 29 2.6
10 Redshank — T. totanus 1.8 3.0 3.8 4.9 2.2 1.5 27 2.4
11 Ruff — P. pugnax 3.0 9.4 2.3 2.1 6.4 26 2.3
12 Curlew — C. ferruginea 1.8 1.2 2.3 3.5 2.8 1.7 22 2.0
13 Greenshank — T. nebularia 1.2 1.8 2.2 2.8 2.8 0.8 19 1.7
14 Marsh sandpiper — T. stagnatilis 1.2 2.3 3.5 1.7 1.3 16 1.4
15 Fiddler — T. hypoleucos 3.8 1.1 0.8 9 0.8
16 Terek — T. cinerea 0.6 2.5 1.7 0.7 0.4 9 0.8
17 Godwit — L. limosa 1.8 1.5 1.7 8 0.7
18 Sandpiper — C. mauri 15.5 3.5 6 0.5
19 Turnstone — A. interpres 1.4 0.4 3 0.3
20 Curlew — N. arquata 0.6 0.7 2 0.2

Note: the generic names of birds are given in Table 1 .

Among the 20 species of this particular group, only eight dominated in terms of occurrence (5 to 17.8% of observed species) (Table 3 ). All bird species fly away from reservoirs of Kyzyl Kum in the beginning of September except the red-necked phalarope and the snipe. A small number of little ring and Kentish plovers and, occasionally, little stint were observed through the beginning of October.

References

  1. Bogdanov, 1882 M.N. Bogdanov; Essays on the Nature of the Khiva Oasis and the Kyzyl Kum Desert; (1882) (Tashkent)
  2. Kovshar, 2000a A.F. Kovshar; Bird watching in the Nordic Kyzylkums in spring of 1984; Selevinia. Kazakhstan Zool. J., I-4 (2000), pp. 110–124
  3. Kovshar, 2000b V.A. Kovshar; Observations of birds Syrdarya delta and adjacent portions of the dried bottom of the Aral Sea in August 2000; Selevinia. Kazakhstan Zool. J., I-4 (2000), pp. 104–110
  4. Sabilaev, 2002a A.S. Sabilaev; On the reproduction of some species of birds in the Northwest Kyzylkums; Abstracts of International Conference “Zool. Research in Kazakhstan: Contemporary Condition and Prospects”, Almaty, March 19–21 (2002), pp. 154–156 a
  5. Sabilaev, 2002b A.S. Sabilaev; Reproduction of gray shrike (Lanius excubitor ) in the Northwest Kyzylkums, Ustyurt and Balkhash  ; Abstracts of International Conference “Zool. research in Kazakhstan: contemporary condition and prospects”, Almaty, March 19–21 (2002), pp. 156–157 (b)
  6. Sabilaev, 2009 A.S. Sabilaev; Desert sparrow (Passer simplex ) in the Nordic Kyzylkums and breeding of this bird in the hollow  ; Zool. Zh., 88 (3) (2009), p. 384
  7. Sabilaev, 2012a A.S. Sabilaev; Observations of the desert nesting warblers (Sylvia nana ) in the Northwest Kyzylkums  ; Materials of the International Scientific Conference “Fauna of Kazakhstan and Adjacent Territories” Dedicated to 80th Anniversary of Institute of Zoology RK, November 22–23, 2012, Almaty (2012), pp. 306–307 (a)
  8. Sabilaev, 2012b A.S. Sabilaev; Features of the quantitative distribution of the joint population of three species of grouse: black- (Pterocles orientalis ), white-bellied (P. alchata ) and Sadzhi (Syrrhaptes paradoxus ) in the Kyzyl Kum desert  ; Materials of the International Scientific Conference “Fauna of Kazakhstan and Adjacent Territories” Dedicated to 80th Anniversary of Institute of Zoology RK, November 22–23, 2012, Almaty (2012), pp. 309–311 (b)
  9. Severtsev, 1873 N.A. Severtsev; Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan animals/news of society of fans of natural sciences; Anthropol. Ethnogr., 8 (2) (1873), pp. 1–157
  10. Spangenberg, 1941 E.P. Spangenberg; Birds of the lower Syr Darya and the surrounding areas; Collection of Papers of the Zoological Museum of MSU, 6 (1941), pp. 77–140
  11. Spangenberg and Feigin, 1930 E.P. Spangenberg, G.A. Feigin; New data on the avifauna of the Kyzyl Kum desert; Reports of Assoc. Math. Scientific Inst. of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow State University, 3 (1930), pp. 10–38 (1-a)
  12. Zahidov, 1971 T.Z. Zahidov; Biocenosis of the Kyzyl Kum Desert (Ecological Experience — Faunal Analysis and Synthesis); Fan, Tashkent (1971)
  13. Zarudny, 1914 N.A. Zarudny; Birds of the Kyzyl Kum Desert; Materials to fauna and flora knowledge, Moscow (1914)
Back to Top

Document information

Published on 27/03/17

Licence: Other

Document Score

0

Views 6
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?