Abstract

Some environmental issues are industrial wastes and cement productions, which cause high gas emissions. Cement is vital in the global construction industry. The research goal was to find a cheaper material locally. Using OPC, calcined Montmorillonite clay powder (CMMT) and waste Khat Husk Ash (KHA) were tested as a partial replacement. Water entering the interlayer molecular spaces and adsorption, a material in expansive soil, causes Montmorillonite clay to expand more than other clays. Most of Ambo's land is expansive soil, from which samples were taken to determine Montmorillonite clay content. The average temperature required to calcine Montmorillonite clay was performed at 800 degree centgrides using a muffle furnace, ground to the fineness of 150μm, and its chemical composition was investigated. Similarly, the waste Khat husk ash was burned until the wastage of khat changes to ash. The proportions by weight are applied for the OPC modified with Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and Waste Khat Hush Ash as follows: Proportion-A (100%: 0%: 0%);Proportion-B (85%:10%:5%); Proportion-C (75%:20%:5%);Proportion-D (65%:30%:5%); Proportion-E (55%:40%:5%) and Proportion-F (45%:50%:5%). The production of concrete for the C-25 Grade mix design was performed based on the ASTM standard specification, ERA manual, and the ACI code to evaluate the strengths and durability of concrete. These materials were calcined and then tested for strength and durability using ASTM C 618-5 to determine the chemical compounds at various temperatures. The experiments used aggregates up to 25mm in size. The results showed that when Ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced with Calcined MMT clay powder and Khat husk ash, the consistency and setting time remained within the ASTM C-191 Standard Specifications. Moreover, the compressive, flexural, and split tensile strengths gradually decreased from the control specimen as the partially replacement was increased. The optimal amount of calcined montmorillonite clay powder and Waste Khat husk ash indicated up to 15% by weight to replace OPC content in normal concrete mix production. The benefit cost analysis revealed that using Ordinary Portland cement with calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and Khat husk ash is more cost-effective than using OPC alone.

Keywords: Calcined Montmorillonite Clay; Concrete mix; Strength and durability of concrete; Expansive soil; Khat Husk Ash.

1. Introduction

The most widely used manufactured building material is concrete. These are made from natural materials and have been used as building materials for a long time. Although concrete and mortar have many advantages, their corrosion resistance is critical.  Concrete durability refers to its ability   to   withstand various environmental   conditions.  Durability is the ability to meet standards of strength, stability, and serviceability over time. The choice of durable concrete components and concrete mix design is crucial (Safi, Muhammad, Tariq, Khan, Sajjad, & Muhammad, June 2019). Concrete has undergone many studies and modifications to achieve the desired properties, as long- lasting and strong concrete is always in demand. To meet this demand, blended cement concrete was   developed, in which cement is partially replaced by other pozzolanic elements. Conversely, cement in concrete is increasing (Guyo, Emer, & Getachew, 2019). Some experts, however, have criticized its environmental impact. The following complaint was made regarding the manufacture of Portland cement,   which    emits   greenhouse   gases (Rehan & Nehdi, 2005).  From some academics, producing one tonne of Portland cement releases approximately one tonne of CO2. It accounts for 5% of global CO2 emissions (Ahmad Hadri & Noor Faisal, 2015). Every ton of cement produced by burning fossil fuels and calcareous carbonation produces around one ton of CO2 (Ahmad Hadri & Noor Faisal, 2015).  Industrial waste is the main environmental   issue, and the climate is released.   Blended cement has grown in popularity over time due to its low cost, environmental friendliness, and sustainability.  Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)   production uses more energy and pollutes the environment (Krishna, 2016). According to this researcher, gas emissions are directly proportional to cement production. As a result of rapid urbanization and infrastructure projects in Ethiopia, cement manufacturers are expanding and polluting the environment. Natural resource consumption also costs cement production. Cement versus aggregates and water in concrete production versus CO2 emissions (Guyo, Emer, & Getachew, 2019). According to ERA, black cotton is high- percentage Montmorillonite clay. The expansive soil expands as the soil   moisture content increases.  This paper covers the methods for reducing atmospheric CO2 and the project cost of replacing cement with calcined  montmorillonite  clay  powder and Khat  ash waste for  concrete production. The production of cement requires massive amounts of raw materials, energy, and heat. The cement industry is closely linked to the state of the construction industry and thus closely monitors the overall economic situation. Cement is an energy-intensive industry that accounts for roughly 40% of total energy costs, excluding c capital and electricity costs (Sadaqat Ullah Khan, 2013).

According to (Joel, 2012), around 7% of CO2 is emitted into the environmental during cement production, which is harmful to the environmental and human future. Until   now,   research has focused on partial cement replacement with different materials. Partially replacing   cement  with    pozzolans is   common   in advanced countries.  Many   modern concrete structures use admixtures   and   pozzolana to   improve  porous   concrete structure and reduce CH in pozzolanic processes. Improved microstructure   improves the durability and life of cement composites (Courard , Anne, & marleen, 2003).  Mixes are the most common partial cement replacement for standard concrete. Despite its huge impact on the environment, solid   waste is now  seen daily all over the world (LOPEZ, 2009).

Cement production was severely impacted in the surrounding area, reducing gas emissions by replacing various mineral admixtures. Many  studies use mineral admixtures, but none of  them studied the effect of  Calcined  Montmorillonite (CMMT) clay powder on the hardened concrete worldwide, and specifically in Ethiopia, where its entire land mass comprised of about 33%  expansive soils.  In this study the partial replace of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with CMMT clay powder and waste of Khat husk ash that could   reduce   significantly   CO2    emissions   considering a calcination temperature up to 800oC, unlike for the production of OPC, the material is heated from 1,3000C – 1,5000C.

The study investigates the temperature activation of clay for local montmorillonite clay. The heated of montmorillonite clay as a partial replacement for cement in concrete.   Used as an    additional   cemented pozzolanic material. In hard concrete strength and durability, the partial replacement of cement by CMMT clay powder and Khat husk ash waste. Besides, recycling the waste Khat husk in urban and rural areas would clean the local area environment. Partial substitution of OPC by calcined MMT clay powder and waste khat Husk ash can reduce the overall project cost due to abundant expansive soils mostly on   the project sites. So, to   educate and  disseminate the suitability of CMMT clay powder as partial replacement of OPC, including KHA waste, this study hypothesized and introduced a large area of expansive soils which are found in Ambo town. Hence, this novel research study used Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and waste Khat husk ash to produce C-25 grade concrete. The  objectives of the research are:  (1) To determine the  chemical  and   physical  properties   of  the   materials ingredients for C-25 concrete production; (2) To determine and analyze the strengths and durability of concrete with  Calcined Montmorillonite  clay  powder and waste khat husk ash; (3) To determine the effect of the different proportions of  calcined MMT  clay   powder,   OPC,   and  waste KHA in  the  concrete strengths  using regression  analysis; (4) To analyze the benefit cost  derived  from the modified materials and the  normal concrete production.

2. Materials and Research Methodology

2.1 Materials Selected

Land mass of Ambo town is composed of almost 90% black cotton soils (expansive soils). It is located of about 120 km west of Addis Ababa with a latitude and longitude of 8059'N 37051'E with an elevation of 2,101 meters above sea mean level. In the 2018 National Census, Ambo had 48,171, with 24,634 men and 23,537 women. On the other hand, Buno Bedele town is a woreda in southwest Ethiopia where an abundant Khat husk wastes collected for the experiment. This town in Oromia region is located at 8027'N 36032'E and it is between 2,012-2,162 meters above sea mean level. Buno Bedele is 426km southwest of Addis Ababa.

2.2 Criteria for selecting a source of materials

The different Constituent materials used for this study are: coarse aggregates, sand, cement, and mineral admixtures in modified calcined montmorillonite clay powder, burned khat husk and potable water. The experimental tests was assessed on the production of concrete containing partial replacement of OPC with the khat hush ash, and calcined montmorillonite clay powder including  the constituents of raw materials mentioned  below. Those are:

1. Coarse and fine aggregate

The   coarse  and  fine    aggregates   used for  this study  was purchased  from the road  construction site Gemshu  Beyene construction PLC found around Ambo  town, implementing the road construction in front of the Commercial Bank  of Ethiopia, Wolliso  project. The maximum size of aggregate used for this experiment was   25mm, while the maximum size of sand for sieve analysis used was 4.75mm.

2. Cement

The type of cement used for this experiment was Dangote Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 42.5N Grade.  It was purchased from the local market.

3. Montmorillonite clay

The montmorillonite clay was found around Ambo town, and there were different expansive soils.  From those soils, the black color   clay was    considered due to its high content of Montmorillonite minerals. The depth of excavation is 1.5m below level of the surface soil. The Montmorillonite   clay was calcined at a temperature of 8000C.

4. Khat Husk Ash

Khat   trees are found everywhere in Ethiopia, but more availability of Khat waste was collected from the Buno-Bedele zone for this experiment.

2.3 Sample of Laboratory test procedures

The experimental tests for the strength and durability of concrete are modified with Calcined Montmorillonite (CMMT) clay powder and wastage of khat husk ash on the production of concrete C-25 Grade. The following are control mix designs to modify the normal ingredients by Calcined MMT clay powder, and Waste khat husk ash. And it was prepared six trials replacement at different percentages as shown on table 1.

Table 1 Sample proportions for the laboratory experiments

Sample Proportion (P)

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), by weight (%)

Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder (CMMTCP, by weight (%)

Khat Husk Ash (KHA), by weight (%)

Total by weight (%)

P-A

100

0

0

100

P-B

85

10

5

100

P-C

75

20

5

100

P-D

65

30

5

100

P-E

55

40

5

100

P-F

45

50

5

100

The following samples were prepared and checked in Materials for quality, workability of concrete, and setting time. Before the properties of hardened concrete conducted, a total of 126 different samples of mold concrete were prepared:

  • For Compressive strength tests; 54 samples concrete cube mold having a dimension of (150mm*150mm*150mm) tested by 7th, 14th, and 28th days.
  • For   split   tensile test; 36    samples with a cylinder shape having a dimension of (300mm*150mm) tested by 14th, and 28th days.
  • For Flexural strength tests; 36 samples having a dimension of (100mm*100mm*500mm) tested by 14th, and 28th days.

To analyze all   experiments, ASTM D 422-63 and ASTM C39 standard   specification of the appropriate limit of finer was selected. The calcined montmorillonite clay powder and khat hush ash should pass through sieve having dimension of 0.150mm (No. 100).

2.3.1 Sample size and sampling technique

The waste of Khat husk was   taken from the Monopole site, which is located around Bunno Bedele Zone, while the Montmorillonite clays (Expansive soils) were collected around Ambo town. Naturally, the property of Montmorillonite clay minerals is highly expansive soil. So, that is why this experiment is mainly focused on this type of soil. The experiment includes an investigation of the expansiveness of the soils in determining the shrinkage limit based on ASTMD 4943-89. the   equation   below is used to   calculate the expansiveness of the soil (ERA, 2013)  

Єex = 2.4Wp–3.9ws+32.5

Where:

Wp = PI x (%passing #40(or0.425mm)/100

Ws = Shrinkage Limit x (%passing #40)/100

Table 2 Classifications of expansive soils according to US Bureau of Reclamation

Colloid content %- 1 µm

PI (%)

SL (%)

Potential expansion (%)

Degree of expansion

<15

< 18

>15

<10

Low

13-23

15-28

10-16

10-20

Medium

20-31

25-41

7-12

20-30

High

>28

>35

<11

>30

Very High

Source: ERA Manual 2013, Special investigation

The Clay soil samples to be calcined were excavated from the different locations around Hachalu Hundesa Campus (TP1), Ambo Agricultural Research Center of EIAR (TP2), and Ambo University-Main Campus (TP3).     Based on ASTM D4318-05 standard consistency methods, the Atterberg limits tests have fulfilled the sample of calcined MMT clay powder due to its soil cohesiveness. One study indicated that in manufacturing Ordinary Portland Cement required burning specimens in a kiln at a temperature 13000C – 15000C. According to (Safi, Muhammad, Tariq, Khan, Sajjad, & Muhammad, June 2019), the calcination of MMT clay powder could be performed from 1000C – 10000C; thus, above and below that, the calcined temperature was not good for the high plasticity.

The montmorillonite ingredients were calcined at the temperature of 800°C by using a muffle furnace. Similarly, the wastage of Khat husk was burned until change to ash. The ashes were carefully collected and sieving followed. The chemical compounds tested at different temperatures. If the highest value obtained from the sum of the main components such as SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3 is more than 70%. it is preferable for the construction industry. So for this experiments the highest value obtained from the main components is 78.1%.

Table 3 The physical and chemical properties of OPC, MMT clay and KHA

Chemical and physical composition (Wt %)

OPC

MMT Clay

KHA

ASTM C618 class N (%)

Sodium oxide (Na2O)

1.67

0.24

3.5

0.7

Magnesium oxide (MgO)

0.7-4.2

0.78

3.26

1

Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)

4.7-6.3

20.5

8

5.87

18

Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

18.7-22.0

49.6

8

54.75

61

Potassium oxide (K2O)

0.51

1.66

10.38

0.8

Calcium oxide (Cao)

60.6-66.3

1.88

5.53

6

Titanium oxide (TiO2)

-

0.39

-

-

Ferric oxide (Fe2O3)

1.6-4.4

7.84

2.34

5.2

Sulphur trioxide (SO3)

1.8-4.6

0.03

-

4 max

(SiO2) + (Al2O3) + (Fe2O3)

-

78.1

62.96

70 min

Loss on ignition (1 hour)

3

8.69

6.8

10 max

% retained # 325 mesh

-

11.4

34max

Blaine fineness (cm2g-1)

3152

2571

34#

Specific gravity (g cm-3)

3.11

2.42

2.14

-

Average particle size

20 µm

4 to 5 µm

1-3 µm

-

2.5 Data collection techniques

The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was partially replaced with Calcined montmorillonite of clay powder at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and waste of husk Khat Ash at 0 %, 5%, 5%, 5%, 5% and 5% by weight and another mechanism to identify the replace is by P-A, P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F.

In addition, a control mix was produced to compare the test results with samples made by partial replacement of Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and waste husk Khat ash. The mixed design process used for this study was based on ACI Method. The mix proportion of the basic ingredients, that is, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and water, were the same for the control mix and for concrete produced by partially replacing Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and Khat husk ash except replacing the OPC by the weight. Measuring the quantities of the concrete making ingredients (coarse aggregates, sand, and water) as well as partial replacement of OPC with Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and waste Khat husk ash was performed according to the indicated proportions of dosage.

Table 4 Materials proportion mix design of compressive strength of C-25 concrete

Mix Proportion

Concrete Grade (Mpa)

W/C

Cement (Kg)   

MCP (Kg)

KHA (Kg)

Fine aggregate (Kg)

Coarse Aggregate (Kg)

Water(L)

P-A

25

0.50

11.32

0.00

0.00

24.2

32.75

5.66

P-B

25

0.60

9.68

1.13

0.51

24.2

32.75

6.79

P-C

25

0.62

8.61

2.26

0.45

24.2

32.75

7.02

P-D

25

0.65

7.53

3.39

0.39

24.2

32.75

7.36

P-E

25

0.68

6.45

4.53

0.34

24.2

32.75

7.7

P-F

25

0.70

5.38

5.66

0.283

24.2

32.75

7.92

Material proportion for 1.62m3 of split tensile strength of concrete

Table 5 Materials proportion of mix design of split tensile strength of c-25 concrete

Mix Proportion

Concrete Grade (Mpa)

W/C

Cement (Kg)   

MCP (Kg)

KHA (Kg)

Fine aggregate (Kg)

Coarse Aggregate (Kg)

Water(L)

P-A

25

0.50

47.4

0.00

0.00

214.2

291.1

23.7

P-B

25

0.60

40.53

4.74

2.13

214.2

291.1

28.44

P-C

25

0.62

36.02

9.48

1.896

214.2

291.1

29.39

P-D

25

0.65

31.52

14.22

1.66

214.2

291.1

30.81

P-E

25

0.68

27.02

18.96

1.422

214.2

291.1

32.23

P-F

25

0.70

22.52

23.7

1.185

214.2

291.1

33.18

Material proportion for 0.18m3 of flexural strength of concrete

Table 6 Materials proportion of mix design flexural strength of C-25 concrete

Mix Proportion

Concrete Grade (Mpa)

W/C

Cement (Kg)   

MCP (Kg)

KHA (Kg)

Fine aggregate (Kg)

Coarse Aggregate (Kg)

Water(L)

P-A

25

0.50

11.18

0.00

0.00

23.8

32.34

5.59

P-B

25

0.60

9.56

1.12

0.503

23.8

32.34

6.71

P-C

25

0.62

8.49

2.24

0.45

23.8

32.34

6.93

P-D

25

0.65

7.44

3.35

0.39

23.8

32.34

7.27

P-E

25

0.68

6.37

4.47

0.34

23.8

32.34

7.60

P-F

25

0.70

5.31

5.59

0.28

23.8

32.34

7.83

2.6 Study Variable

Regression analysis is used to investigate and analyze relationships between variables. To find the effect and the relationship between dependent and independent variables, linear regression uses the equation, y = MX + c.

2.6.1 Independent variable

The horizontal (X –axis) of  varying dosage  modified calcined montmorillonite clay powder with khat husk ash of six trail proportion of this study to shows list bellows; P-A, P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F. In this case, the outcome was not random. It's one or more variables (Explanatory).

2.6.2 Dependent Variable

The vertical show the output of the result test, the dependent variables are placed on the "Y" axis. The hardened strength of concrete was modified calcined montmorillonite clay powder and khat husk ash. 

2.7 Data processing and analysis

All tests were conducted in the laboratory to obtain the desired output. All samples were tested in the laboratory according to the ASTM, ACI, and ERA Manuals for concrete specimens concerning compressive strength, flexural strength, and split tensile strength to check the durability and different material properties.

2.8 Procedures followed & conducted Laboratory experiments:

1. The calcined of MMT clay powder was collected at the Hachalu Hundesa campus around the new stadium, the maximum sieve size of 150µm considered.

2. The wastage of KHA was collected from Buno Bedele Zone the maximum sieve size 150µm

3. Coarse aggregate was purchased from Gamushu Bayana general construction PLC crusher plants found around the Ambo town.

4. Dangote Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was purchased from markets found around Total gas station in ambo town.

5. Laboratory tests for fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and OPC with calcined MMT clay powder and waste KHA were performed at Ambo   University Hacalu Hundesa, Institute of Technology Material Testing and Concrete Structure Laboratory.

I. Fine aggregate; laboratory tests conducted for fine aggregate were: sieve analysis, unit weight, specific gravity (bulk, apparent, and SSD), water absorption, moisture content, silt content, and fineness modulus.

II. Coarse Aggregate: Laboratory tests conducted for coarse aggregate were; sieve analysis, unit weight, specific gravity (bulk,   apparent, and SSD), moisture content, and water absorption.

III. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) partial replacement with Calcined MMT clay powder and waste KHA: The laboratory tested the setting time and consistency of fresh mix concrete.

OPC blended with CMMT and KHA: fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water were batched according to their proportions and were blended with a hand mixer.  The proportions are assigned by P-A, P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F by Weight. The mix design was conducted according to the ACI mix design manual to achieve the target strength for C-25 grade in concrete production.

  • Nine concrete cube samples (15cm*15cm*15cm) were taken from each mix, and compressive strength tests were performed on the 7th, 14th, and 28th days for each proportion of partial replacement.
  • Six- cylinder specimens (15cm*30cm) were taken from each concrete mix.  The split tensile strength tests for the specimen were performed on the 14th and 28th days.
  • Six beam specimens (10cm*10cm*50cm) were taken from each concrete mix, and a flexural strength test was conducted on the 14th and 28th days.

3. Results and Discussions

3.1. Properties of concrete materials

3.1.1 Consistency and setting time of paste cement with Calcined MMT clay powder and KHA

Initial setting time of hydraulic cement indicated by ASTM C150 and Ethiopian standard limits of 60 minutes, and 600 minutes for two Vicats Needles test methods (ASTM C191) for the final setting time. The paste's normal consistencies are within the ASTM C-187-86 specification ranges in all blending cases. The normal consistency of hydraulic cement was between 26% and 33% when modified with calcined montmorillonite clay powder and waste khat husk ash. The outcomes are as follows:

Table 7 Consistency and setting time of partial replacement

Proportion ratio Consistency: water-cement ratio (%) The setting of OPC with MMT and KHA
Initial setting time Minutes Final setting time Minutes
P-A 28 58 372
P-B 32 53 369
P-C 33 49 360
P-D 34 46 358
P-E 36 40 350
P-F 38 38 346


Review 132545093121-chart1.svg

Figure 1 Consistency of OPC modified with MMT clay powder and KHA


Review 132545093121-chart2.svg


Figure 2 The setting time of paste mix of OPC with MMT clay and KHA

Depending on the water-cement ratio, there are different standards for consistency and setting time. Suppose the proportion of modified montmorillonite clay powder and khat husk ash increases; adding water reduces the mixing consistency and setting time. The ASTM and Ethiopian standards recommend a cement consistency of 26% to 33%. The pastes are mixed normally. During cement testing, the Vicat plunger penetrated 10+1 mm. In this study, different mineral admixtures have different proportion ratios to replace. P-B and P-C were chosen based on the standard specification. 

3.2 Silt content in the fine aggregate

According to the Ethiopian Standard and ASTM C 117 limits, silt content does not exceed 6% (Woyesa Ararsa, Emer Tucay Quezon and Abraham Aboneh, 2018). If the fine aggregate with silt content exceeds, the limit, it must be washed or rejected the materials. In the Ethiopian case, the primary source of fine aggregate is manufactured sand which is expensive, while river sand, and most of the time, silt content is more than 6%. Therefore, the mechanisms to solve percentage silt content to minimize by washing the sand otherwise rejected. Based on their study, after washing the Ambo Sandstone, the amount of silt content was 5.8%, below 6%.  

3.3 Sieve Analysis for Fine Aggregate

Fine-aggregate grading within the limits of ASTM (C33-78 and C 136) is generally satisfactory for most concretes. A test in the laboratory for the fine aggregate samples on sieve analysis was conducted on the river sand compared with the (Specifications, 2002).

Table 8 Sieve analysis of fine aggregate

Sieve Size [mm] Weight of sieve (gm) Weight of sieve & Retained (gm) Weight of Retained (gm) % of retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative % Passing Specification % Passing
9.5 mm 281.4 281.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 100 100
4.75 mm 303.5 311.05 7.55 1.51 1.51 98.49 95-100
2.36 mm 304.5 324.45 19.95 3.99 5.5 94.5 80-100
1.18 mm 278.9 324.75 45.85 9.17 14.67 85.33 50-85
0.60 mm 271.2 423.35 152.15 30.43 45.1 54.9 25-60
0.30 mm 257.3 486.75 229.45 45.89 90.99 9.01 5-30
0.15 mm 288.5 324.95 36.45 7.29 98.28 1.72 0-10
0.075mm 249.9 257.25 7.35 1.47 99.75 0.25 -
Pan 227.1 228.35 1.25 0.25 100
TOTAL 500 256.05

From the above Table 8, they can see that the sieve analysis test result shows that the cumulative percent passing is within the standard limit. The test result of each sieve number complies with the standard; hence the sand has not fulfilled the requirements as per ASTM 33 standard specification.

Review 132545093121-chart3.svg

Figure 3 sieve analysis of fine aggregate

Other requirements of ASTM C 33 (AASTHO M 6) are: The fine aggregate must not have more than 45% retained between any two consecutive standard sieves. The fine modulus of fine aggregate (sand) is 2.56%, while according to the ASTM Standard and Ethiopian standards, there are three categories and their corresponding range. Fine sand ranges from 2.20 - 2.60, medium sand from 2.60 - 2.90, and coarse sand from 2.90 - 3.20 (specifications). Therefore, the fine modulus of the result of the experiment indicated fine sand. It is preferable for the construction industry.

Table 9 Physical properties of fine aggregate

Description Test Result
Specific gravity 2.56
Silt content (%) 5.9
Water absorption (%) 3
Moisture content (%) 1.75
Unit weight(Kg/m3) 1545


3.4 Sieve Analysis for Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate shall have consisted of gravel, crushed stone. The grading requirements of ASTM C 33 and C 136 (AASHTO M 80) permit a wide range of grading and various grading sizes (ERA manual 2013).

Table 10 Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate

Sieve size [mm] Mass retained [g] % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative %Passing Specification %Passing
50mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 100 100.0
37.5 mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 100 100
25 mm 580.7 29.035 29.035 70.965 65-100
19.0 mm 679.3 33.965 63 37 30-70
13.2 mm 599 29.95 92.95 7.05 10-55
9.5 mm 101.5 5.075 98.025 1.975 0-10
4.75 mm 39.1 1.955 99.98 0.02 0-5
Pan 0.4 0.02
TOTAL 2000 382.99


Review 132545093121-chart4.svg

Figure 4 The sieve analysis of coarse aggregate

Based on the test performed according to ASTM C33 and Ethiopian standards, the fineness modulus of coarse aggregate indicated 3.83. Thus, it's preferable for concrete construction.

Table 11 Physical properties of coarse aggregate with ASTM standard

Description Test Methods Test Result
Maximum aggregate size (mm) ASTM C 136 25mm
Specific gravity ASTM C-127 2.65
Apparent specific gravity ASTM C-127 2.7
Water absorption (%) ASTM C-127 2
Moisture content (%) ASTM C-566 1.36
Unit weight(Kg/m3) ASTM C-29 1400


3.5 Black cotton soils (Expansive soil)

The soil samples were first air-dried and properly crushed. Atterberg’s limits and linear shrinkage tests were conducted on soil samples passing #40 (0.425mm) sieve and the other tests. According to  (C-618-05), for any material to be considered as pozzolanic, its Strength Activity Index (SAI) should be at least 75% of the control mix, both for 7th and 28th days, at its 20% cement replacement level (C-618-05). From the Atterberg’s limits and grain size analysis tests, the natural subgrade soil of the study area of TP1, TP2, and TP3, respectively, have a Liquid limit, plastic limit, and Plasticity index more than 35% passing #200 sieve sizes. Both plastic and liquid limit are whole numbers. If either the plastic limit or liquid limit could not be determined, or if the plastic limit (PL) is equal to or greater than the liquid limit (LL), report the soil as nonplastic (NP). The plasticity index of the Montmorillonite clay powder for TP1, TP3, and TP3 is 37.05%, 25.76%, 20.07%, respectively.

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Figure 5 Plastic index of expansive soil

The expansive soil was taken from three different places around Ambo town for this study as listed below: (1) around Hacalu Hundessa Campus, (2) Ambo agricultural institute of technology, and (3) Ambo university main campus. According to this, the soil which has more expansiveness property has selected from the samples taken. The samples of montmorillonite clay were collected and calcined at a temperature of 800oC. The ashes served as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) blended with KHA for concrete production. Among the three locations, the highest Plasticity index of soils found at TP1 (Hacalu Hundessa Campus) with 37.05%. The indirect tests conducted include the Atterberg limits and grain size distribution, which helped to determine the activity of clay (the ratio of plasticity index (PI) to the percentage of clay fractions finer than 2µm sieve size) present in the sample and degree of expansiveness (TAGEL 2016).

According to the (MWUD, Ministry of Works and urban development of Ethiopia 2009), all greyish or brownish clays in Ethiopia with Plasticity indices (PI) greater than 25% can be identified as expansive soils. Likewise, ERA of expansive soil classification it explains that the classification or rating from low to high potential usually depends on the clay content and plasticity of the clay soils.

According to ASTM D4943-08 (ASTM 2008), the standards specification of shrinkage limit (14.3 to 41.1) %, the result of TP1 was used 14% shrinkage limit and 37.02% of Plasticity index. The Alterberg limit and shrinkage limit laboratory result was analyzed and identified more expansiveness soil.  The montmorillonite clay sample was selected TP1 or Hachalu Hundessa campus. The montmorillonite clay results of the expansiveness of soil in TP1 were achieved 53.24%. Hence, the classification of expansive soils in this study is a high classification of expansiveness soil.

The MMT clay samples were put in the muffle furnace for the required duration. MMT clay was heated at different activation temperatures. The raw materials ordinary Portland cement was burned at the temperature of 13000C to 15000C. The suggested calcination temperature was between 600°C - 800°C using a muffle furnace for an hour, according to (Safi et al. June 2019). The temperature of the Montmorillonite clay soil of TP1 (Hachalu Hundessa Campus) sample was Calcined at a temperature of 800°C.  The clay was heated at for 3 hours. Then, the material was allowed to cool down for about 6.0 hrs before pulverizing to the desired fineness as per the methods indicated. The analysis was carried out, and the materials are passing through sieve having 150µm dimension.

3.6 Properties of Fresh Concrete

3.6.1 Workability test

The workability and consistency of the concrete mixes were measured using the slump cone test as per as ASTM C143-89 (H., Norbert and S. 2004). According to recommended values of a slump for various types of construction as given by ACI 211.1-81, for the conducted mix design in this study, all the mixes were designed to have slumped in a range between 20mm to 80mm.

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Figure 6 Workability of fresh concrete

From the above Figure 6 the slump cone of the workability of Concrete was conducted depending on the mean target (20-80) mm, the replacement percentages were started from P-A up to P-D was acceptable for the construction industry, unless the rest is low workability of Concrete according to ACI 211.1-81.

3.6.2 Properties of hardened Concrete

A different hardened concrete test such as: Unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength were conducted.

3.6.3 Unit weight

The unit weight of modified calcined MMT clay powder and KHA volume of the cubes mold having (0.15cm*0.15cm*0.15cm) dimension was performed. The weight of concrete cubes was measured just before crushing the sample. When increasing the replacement percentage of MMT clay powder and KHA with cement, the unit weight of cubic Concrete was reduced according to the observed laboratory test results.

3.7 Compressive strength of concrete test result of C- 25 grade

A compressive strength test was conducted by 7th, 14th, and 28th days. The compressive strength tests results show in the table 12. If compressive strength of concrete decreases as the percentage replacement of modified montmorillonite clay and waste of khat husk ash was increased. The results show that replacing Calcined MMT clay and KHA by 15% with OPC to attain maximum compressive strength by 7th, 14th, and 28th days compared to replacing a percentage of mineral admixtures.

Table 12 the test result of compressive strength of C-25 concrete

Replacement percentage Compressive strength of Concrete (Mpa)
7th 14th 28th
P-A 14.70 19.75 26.86
P-B 11.46 14.75 20.20
P-C 11.09 13.07 16.86
P-D 6.25 8.70 11.24
P-E 5.28 7.89 9.38
P-F 4.74 7.15 8.20
According to the results obtained from this experiment the maximum compressive strength of Concrete to resist load is at 15% or P-B of modified calcined MMT clay powder and khat husk ash. The concrete samples at the 15% or P-B were maximum compressive strength concrete by 7th, 14th, and 28th days are 11.46Mpa, 14.75Mpa, 20.20Mpa, respectively.
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Figure 7 Test results of compressive strength of C-25 concrete

The compressive strength of Concrete without montmorillonite of clay and khat husk ash was 26.86Mpa by 28th day (P-A or 0% replacement percentages). Considering at 7th days the average compressive strength of Concrete, the different percentage replacement of MMT clay powder and KHA with cement should be achieved 77.96%, 75.44%, 42.51%, 35.92%, and 32.24% from P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F respectively. To compare the P-A (0% replacement) by 7th, the compressive strength of P-A is 14.70MPa, then P-B is 11.46MPa it was decreased by 3.24MPa depending on the P-A load resist when compared to the P - A it was preferable for the construction. P-B (15% replacement) was achieved around 77.96%. The compressive strength of concrete P-C is 11.09MPa; 3.61MPa decreased it depending on the P-A (14.70MPa). Then P-C was achieved at 75.44% for a construction project.

According to ASTM C 39-05 and ACI 318-05 by 14th days, the percentage replacement of MMT clay and KHA with cement has succeeded the rate of compressive strength in terms of percent 74.68%, 66.18%, 44.10%, 39.95%, and 36.20% was collected from P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F respectively. The compressive strength of concrete by 14th days without replacement was achieved 19.75MPa, then comparing the difference between the replacement percentages. P-B (14.75MPa or 74.68%) decreased the difference between PA- and P-B is 5MPa. Then it was succeeded at 74.68%. The 6.68MPa load decreased P-C (25% replacement) to minimize from the P-A (0% Replacement) to resist the load. Then the replacement percentage of 25% or P-C was achieved 66.18% (13.07). The compressive strength of concrete by 28th day was achieved 75.20%, 62.77%, 41.85%, 34.92%, and 30.53% from the proportion of P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F, respectively. The compressive strength of concrete by 28th days is recorded without the Calcination of MMT clay powder, and KHA was 26.86MPa (P-A 0% replacement). In terms of P-B, the load to resist 20.20MPa, the difference between P-A (0% replacement) is 6.66MPa. The replacement of a percentage of P-B (15%) was achieved 75.20%. The compressive strength of P-C is 16.86MPa, compare with P-A and P-B from 10MPa and 3.34MPa, respectively, to reduce the load resistance. In contrast, P-C was achieved 62.77%. Therefore, depending on the compressive strength of Concrete, the replacement percentage of MMT and KHA was gradually decreased the load to resist. The highest compressive strength of this study is 20.20MPa P-B (15% replacement) by 28th day. From day to day, the compressive strength is increased as the percentage of replacement increased. According to ACI 211.1-81, the relationship between water-cement ratio and compressive strength of Concrete in terms of non-air entrained Concrete of W/C P-B (15% replacement) was 0.60. The mean target average of cubic compressive strength of Concrete by 28th days was achieved 20.20MPa (75.2%).

3.8 Split tensile strength of Concrete for C-25

The split tensile strength of Concrete was conducted by 14th and 28th days. The sample tests were prepared by the partial replacement of cement with montmorillonite clay powder and waste khat husk ash by the control mix design. As the replaced percentage was increased, the split tensile strength of Concrete was gradually decreased.

Table 13 test result of split tensile strength of C- 25 concrete

Replacement percentage Split tensile strength of Concrete (MPa)
14th 28th
P-A 2.22 2.60
P-B 1.82 2.32
P-C 1.46 1.72
P-D 0.93 1.16
P-E 0.79 0.93
P-F 0.69 0.84

As per as ASTM C 496, the laboratory test was conducted for split tensile strength of Concrete. The recorded split tensile strength of Concrete was 2.22MPa and 2.60MPa without MMT, and KHA by 14th and 28th, respectively. The sample prepared by P-B 15% partial replacement has the highest value, which is 1.82MPa and 2.32MPa by 14th and 28th days. Likewise, the lowest value, which is 0.69MPa and 0.84 by 14th and 28th days, is attained by the sample with P-F 55% partial replacement. The sample with P-A, P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F partial replacement shows strength to decrease by 100%, 81.98%, 65.77%, 41.89%, 35.59%, and 31.08%, respectively, by 14th days of compressive strength as shown in table 20 below. The replacement percentage of P-A, P-B, P-C, P-D, P-E, and P-F shows that the compressive strength is gradually decreased by 100%, 89.23%, 66.15%, 44.62%, 35.76%, and 32.31% by 28th day.

The P-B (15% replacement) the load resist of 1.82MPa and 2.32MPa, the difference between P-A (2.22MPa and 2.60MPa) is 0.4MPa and 0.28MPa by 14th 28th day respectively.  And the split tensile strength was reached 81.98% and 89.23% respectively. The split strength of P-C was recorded 1.46MPa and 1.72MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. Compared to the P-A and P-B the ability to resist the load is reduced. The split tensile strength is reduced, when the percentage of replacing is increases, then P-A (2.22Mpa and 2.60MPa) and P-B (1.82MPa and 2.32MPa) by 14th and 28th days, respectively. The proportion of P-A and P-C was attained 0.76MPa and 0.88MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. P-B and P-C were replaced to minimize the load to resist between them 0.36MPa and 0.60MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. Therefore, P-C (25% replacement) was achieved by 65.77% and 66.15% by 14th and 28th days, respectively, to resist a load of split tensile strength for C 25 concrete.

3.9 Flexural Strength of Concrete

The flexural strength of Concrete in this test is done using two-point of loading to apply the flexural of Concrete. The test results shows when the partial replacement percentage increase, the flexural strength of Concrete for C-25 Concrete was gradually decreasing as the table 14.

     Table 14 the test result of Flexural strength of C-25 concrete

Replacement percentages Flexural strength concrete (MPa)
14th 28th
P-A 2.2365 3.14
P-B 1.47 1.87
P-C 0.99 1.31
P-D 0.78 0.896
P-E 0.61 0.7095
P-F 0.44 0.525

The flexural strength of Concrete was replaced by the proportion of P-A (2.24MPa and 3.14MPa), P-B (1.47MPa and 1.87), P-C (0.99MPa and 1.31MPa), P-D (0.78MPa and 0.896MPa), P-E (0.61MPa and 0.71MPA), and P-F (0.44MPa and 0.53MPa) by 14th and 28th days respectively. And the flexural strength of Concrete is gradually decreased. From the above partial replacement proportion P-B (15% replace) was the highest strength compared with the other replacement percentages. Then the replacement of P-B resists the load of 1.47MPa and 1.87MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. In this study, it's found that flexural strength of Concrete containing MMT clay powder and waste of KHA with OPC particles decreased differ from the other by 14th and 28th days as follows:

  • When the calcined of MMT clay and waste of KHA in Concrete is P-B (15% replace), the loss of flexural strength is 34.48% and 40.59%.
  • When the calcined of MMT clay and waste of KHA in Concrete is P-C (25% Replace), the loss of flexural strength is 55.64% and 58.35%.
  • When the calcined of MMT clay and waste of KHA in Concrete is P-D (35% Replace), the loss of flexural strength is 65.07% and 71.48%.
  • When the calcined of MMT clay and waste of KHA in Concrete is P-E (45% replace), the loss of flexural strength is 72.92% and 77.42%.
  • When the calcined of MMT clay and waste of KHA in Concrete is P-F (55% replace), the loss of flexural strength is 80.51% and 83.29%.

The flexural strength of Concrete was produced less than 15% (P-B) of partial replacement of cement with MMT clay powder and Waste of KHA. Thus, the proportion of P-B was used for the construction industry 65.52% and 59.41% by 14th and 28th days, respectively. It can be produced the Concrete of C-25 grade production.

3.10 Durability Test

The effect of Montmorillonite clay and waste khat husk ash on the durability of Concrete was investigated by using the Dry –wet strength, concrete shrinkage properties, etc. According to IS 456-2000, "a durable concrete is the one that performs satisfactorily in the working environment during its anticipated exposure during service." Durability can be understood in many ways. It is defined as the time duration until Concrete in a hardened state can withstand the weathering effects satisfactorily. The Concrete durability depends on its resistance to the ingress of aggressive agents through the pores. This property is affected by the water-cement ratio to a large extent. Good concrete should be durable in a hardened state (SAMREEN KHAN May- 2018). The compressive strength of Concrete for C 25 concrete has gradually increased for each day, then the calcination MMT clay powder and KHA with the cement of durability is to resist. As more CH is consumed during the pozzolanic reaction of calcined clay to form additional CSH gel, thus reducing CH content durability of hydrated cement is improved (Safi et al. June 2019).

3.11 Effect of dry and wet exposure strength

The compressive strength of concrete specimens decreased due to weather conditions. The compressive strength of concrete P-B was more preferable for the construction industry concerning these test results. The strength of P-B was reduced due to the weather condition of Concrete by 0.26% to this exposure. The modified calcined MMT clay and KHA content was increased, the durability resistance to wet and dry was decreased.

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Figure 8 The dry condition of compressive strength of C-25 concrete

The   partial replace of  P-A,  P-B,  P-C,  P-D,  P-E,  and P-F  the strength for C 25 concrete composed of  23.58MPa, 17.67MPa, 14.28MPa, 7.59MPa, 6.53MPa, and 5.71MPa respectively by 28th days. The strength of modified replacement was gradually decreased when the percentage of partial replacement is increased. The compressive strength for C- 25 concrete of dry condition by 28th days was decreased. The percentage of compressive strength for P-B at 28th days is 75.20%,   and the dry condition compressed strength is 74.94%.  The difference between them is 0.26% to reduce load resist on   partial    replacement   of P-B   (15%). Therefore, the dry exposure strength   of   Concrete   is minimized.  Then, to modify the materials' proportion in dry and wet, it needs some chemical admixtures. The  partial replacement of cement with  calcination of montmorillonite clay powder  and  waste khat husk ash was    more  W/C;   when increasing the replaced percentage, the water-cement ratio also increases. Therefore, the compressive strength of Concrete is less strength, so the durability of dry condition concrete strength was low.

3.12 Shrinkage of Concrete

Durability of concrete was minimized due to the impact of concrete shrinkage. The compressive strength was evaluated by tests performed on cubic specimens having a dimension of (150mm*150mm*150mm) by 7th, 14th, and 28th days. The   shrinkage (dry) of each mixture was  measured as per the AS 1012.13 Standard. The specimens were removed from mold casting after 24 hr and then cured underwater until the 7th day finally the initial length was   recorded. The samples were left for drying in the laboratory at room temperature (23oC), and change in length was recorded by 28th day. Therefore as the dosage of modified calcined montmorillonite clay powder, and waste khat husk ash with OPC increase, the volume of concrete is randomly changed.

3.13 Determining the optimum analysis of MMT and KHA with OPC

3.13.1 Optimum mix compressive strength of Concrete

To determine the optimum by 28th day of compressive strength of Concrete for P-B is 75.20% of the targeted mean strength of cubes Concrete after 28th days. It implies that the compressive strength of concrete by 28th days is greater than 20.20MPa (0.75*26.86MPa = 20.20Mpa). The compressive strength was assigned by the dependent variables depending on the proportion percentage.

Table 15 Regression analysis of compressive strength of C-25 concrete

Proportion Independent variables of % proportion Compressive strength @ 7th Dependent Variables Compressive strength @ 14th Dependent Variables Compressive strength @ 28th Dependent Variables
P-A 0 14.70 19.75 26.86
P-B 10 11.46 14.75 20.20
P-C 20 11.09 13.07 16.86
P-D 30 6.25 8.70 11.24
P-E 40 5.28 7.89 9.38
P-F 50 4.74 7.15 8.20
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Figure 9 Optimum analysis of compressive strength of C-25 Concrete
The optimum analysis of compressive strength of concrete modified calcined MMT clay powder and KHA was produce Concrete up to 15% or proportion of B (P-B).

3.13.2 Optimum mix of split tensile strength of Concrete

The split tensile strength of the concrete test was conducted by 14th and 28th days. The mean targeted split tensile strength of 81.98% was fulfilled, depending on its strength 1.82(MPa) (0.82*2.22mpa = 1.82MPa). Figure, 14 is used to determine the percentage replacement in which split tensile strength of Concrete is greater than or equal to the targeted mean strength of C-25 grade concrete.

Table 16 the variable of split tensile strength of C-25 concrete

Proportion Independent variables of % proportion Split tensile strength @ 14th dependent Variables Split tensile strength @ 28th dependent Variables
P-A 0 2.22 2.60
P-B 10 1.82 2.32
P-C 20 1.46 1.72
P-D 30 0.93 1.16
P-E 40 0.79 0.93
P-F 50 0.69 0.84
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Figure 10 The average of optimum analysis of split tensile strength of C-25 concrete with dosage of OPC with MMT clay and KHA

Up to 15%, partially replacing OPC with MMT and KHA, the split tensile strength of Concrete resist the load of 1.82MPa and 2.32MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. Thus the proportion of P-B (15%) was preferable for normal concrete production.

3.13.3 Optimum control mix of flexural strength of Concrete.

The partial replacement of the optimum mix of flexural Concrete was conducted by 14th and 28th days of C-25 concrete production. The mean target of flexural Concrete was reached 59.41% by 28th days of the proportion of P-B (15%). Then by 28th day, the flexural strength of Concrete is greater than 1.87MPa (i.e., 0.5941 *3.14MPa = 1.87MPa).

Table 17 Average variables of flexural strength of result of C-25 concrete

Proportion Independent variables of % proportion Flexural strength @ 14th dependent Variables Flexural strength @ 28th dependent Variables
P-A 0 2.24 3.14
P-B 10 1.47 1.87
P-C 20 0.99 1.31
P-D 30 0.78 0.90
P-E 40 0.61 0.71
P-F 50 0.44 0.53
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Figure 11 average variables of optimum analysis flexural strength results of C-25 concrete

It implies that the flexural strength of Concrete which produce normal Concrete up to 15% (P-B) was achieved the optimum mix 1.47MPa and 1.87MPa by 14th and 28th days, respectively. Generally, the optimum mix by 28th day of compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of Concrete was reached 20.20MPa, 2.32MPa, and 1.87MPa, respectively. Then up to 15% (P-B) of partial replacement of OPC with MMT and KHA can produce the normal concrete.

3.14 The environmental impact of Calcined MMT clay powder and waste KHA with OPC

OPC production uses more energy and pollutes the environment by emitting carbon dioxide. They overlooked the clay's thermal activation. This study investigates the activation of montmorillonite clay in Ambo town at various temperatures. The use of Calcined MMT clay and KHA waste in concrete as a partial replacement for OPC will improve its properties. This study evaluates the effects of heated MMT clay and KHA on the mechanical strength of concrete specimens in extreme curing environments; and compares the durability of concrete when OPC is replaced with Calcined montmorillonite clay powder and waste khat husk ash at various replacement levels. To reduce the amount of gas released into the atmosphere, OPC was replaced by calcined MMT clay powder and KHA wastage. Khat husk waste is scattered throughout the city. Thus, wastage of Khat reduced urban aesthetics, then collect wastage of husk khat to prepare for partial replacement of OPC. Montmorillonite clay has a high plasticity. So it's not suitable for construction because it requires another soil for compaction to reduce plasticity in the site area. Then OPC was used to partially replace calcined MMT clay powder because OPC has higher plasticity than MMT clay powder. Generally, replacing calcined MMT clay powder and KHA with OPC reduced gas emissions.

3.15 The cost Comparison of OPC and with calcined MMT clay powder and waste KHA and OPC only

The comparison cost analysis of OPC and calcined of MMT clay and KHA wastage are identified in terms of raw materials. In this study work, the cost breakdown and economic analysis was worked out as the cost of OPC, MMT clay, KHA, sand, aggregate, and water are used for the production of plain concrete depends on its user point location; to give insight for cost benefits, the average cost without admixtures or OPC only and the partial replacement of OPC with calcined of MMT clay and wastage of KHA, sand, aggregate, and water to produce plain concrete and labour cost for the production of plain concrete production is presented below.

3.15.1 Mix design of plain concrete production cost analysis of OPC only

The mix design of control mix of plan concrete for C-15 ratio 1:2:4. The information required:

  • C-15 = 1:2:4
  • Dry base analysis = 1.54m3
  • Unit weights;-  cement = 1450kg/m3, coarse aggregate = 1400kg/m3 and fine aggregate = 1545kg/m3
  • Volume of mold =  (0.15*0.15*0.15)m3 = 0.003375m3
  • Total compressive mold = 54*0.003375m3 = 0.18225m3
  • To analyze for the C- 15 plain concrete of compressive strength of 1m3 concrete.


The mix design of split tensile strength for C-25 plain concrete.

Mix design of flexural strength of concrete for C-25 plain concrete.

Volume mould of flexural strength = (0.10*0.10*0.50) m3 = 0.005m3


The raw materials requirement of plain concrete for mix design of C-25 grade ratio production of concrete. Those raw materials are OPC and MMT clay and KHA, sand, coarse aggregate, and water.

  • Total volume of cement = (0.040+0.042+0.039) m3 = 0.1217m3.
  • Weight of cement = 0.1217m3*1450kg/m3 = 176.465kg
  • The amount of OPC currently was purchased in the market 650.00 ETB for 100kg weight
* Total cost of OPC without MMT clay and KHA = 176.465kg*650ETB = 1147.023ETB
* Total volume of fine aggregate = (0.0802+0.084+0.0792) m3 = 0.2434m3

For 16m3 of river sand was purchased from the market 10,000ETB, then for this study 0.2434m3 of sand to need for the plain concrete. The amount of sand was purchased from the market = (0.2434m3*10,000ETB)/16m3 = 152.125ETB.

Total volume of coarse aggregate = (0.1604+0.17+0.1584) m3 = 0.489m3

For 16m3 of coarse aggregate was purchased from the market 18,000ETB, then for this study they need 0.489m3 of coarse aggregate. Thus the amount of coarse aggregate was purchased from the market = (0.489m3*18,000ETB)/16m3 = 550.125ETB. The total amount of raw materials for plain concrete are 550.125+152.125+1147.023 = 1849.273 ETB.

1. Labor cost

The cost analysis of labor cost was classified by skilled and unskilled

  • 400ETB per day (skilled) = 400.00 ETB.
  • 100ETB per day (unskilled) = 100.00 ETB
  • Total = 500 ETB per day
2. Transport cost

The transportation cost of raw materials for the plain concrete such as: -

  • For the OPC was paid 100ETB
  • Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate were paid for transport 300ETB.

The total amount of plain concrete of raw materials, labour cost, and transportation cost of OPC, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate are =(1849.273+500+400)ETB = 2749.273ETB.

3.15.2 Mix design of plain concrete of cost analysis of OPC partial replacement with Calcined of MMT clay powder and wastage of KHA

The comparison cost analysis of partial replacement of OPC with the calcined of MMT clay powder and wastage of KHA. The cost comparison of constituent's materials was to identify in terms of OPC, but on the sand and coarse aggregate has equal. There are different proportions of partial replacement of OPC with Calcined MMT clay powder and wastage KHA.

  • The total volume of OPC is 0.086275m3. then weight = 0.086275m3*1450kg/m3 = 125.098kg. For the 100kg weight of ordinary Portland cement was purchased from the market 650.00 ETB. The amount of OPC was purchased 125.098kg for this study by the 813.137 ETB.
  • The total volume of Calcined MMT clay powder is 0.03045m3. The amount of montmorillonite clay powder was collected without any payment locally available, and when excavated, the expansive soil was paid 100 ETB for the daily labor.
  • The total volume of wastage of KHA is 0.005075m3. The wastage of Khat was collected from where, in this study, without any payment, the wastage of husk Khat was collected. Therefore the total amount OPC+MMT+KHA = 813.137+0+0= 913.137 ETB was purchased. The amount of fine and coarse aggregates indicated 152.125ETB and 550.125ETB, respectively. The total amount of plain concrete are 813.137+152.125+550.15 = 1515.412ETB
1. Labor cost

The cost analysis of labor cost was classified by skilled and unskilled

  • 400ETB per day (skilled) = 400.00 ETB.
  • 100ETB per day (unskilled) = 100.00 ETB
  • Total = 500.00 ETB per day
2. Transport cost

The transportation cost of raw materials for the plain concrete such as:

  • For the OPC was paid 100 ETB without admixtures, but the weight of OPC is 125.098kg, then the amount OPC is (125.098kg*100ETB)/200ETB = 62.55ETB to paid for the transport and for KHA was collected from Bedele zone was paid 50ETB and montmorillonite was collect without pay.
  • Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate were paid for transport 300ETB.

The total amount of plain concrete raw materials cost, labor, and transportation cost of partial replacement of OPC with calcined MMT clay and wastage KHA, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate are 1515.412ETB +500ETB+412.55ETB = 2427.962ETB. Generally, the cost comparison without admixtures of OPC was release for the plain concrete are 2749.273ETB. In contrast, the partial replacement of OPC and calcined MMT clay powder and wastage of KHA were depicted with 2427.962ETB. Thus the partial replacement of admixtures is a cheaper cost when compared with admixtures. Therefore, the partial replacement of OPC by calcined of MMT clay and wastage KHA are economical to use for plain concrete, indicating a significant reduction of the total project cost for the construction industry.

4. Conclusion

The expansiveness of soil was determined using the highest plasticity index clay used to partially replace Ordinary Portland Cement when calcined at the required temperature. This study used three samples: TP1, TP2, and TP3. The TP1 result of plastic index is 37.05 percent. Expansiveness soil of Tp1 is 54.24% or a high range. This study discovered that the highest expansiveness of clay has a good pozzolanic, a chemical compound found in Ordinary Portland Cement. However, partial replacement of calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and khat husk ash with cement reduced setting time. The control mix's Calcined Montmorillonite Clay Powder and Khat Husk Ash initial and final setting times range from 38 to 372 minutes. The blended paste initial setting and final setting time decreased with partial replacement. In accordance with ASTM C191 standard P-D, P-E, and P-F is out of range due to the partial replacement. Using calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and waste khat husk ash as an OPC modifier reduced the setting time of mixed concrete. In such cases it needs accelerator of concrete admixtures:

The workability of concrete containing the modifier Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder and waste of khat husk ash gradually decrease, as the partial replacement content was increase as follows P-A (35mm), P-B (28mm), P-C (25mm), P-D (20mm), P-E (15mm) and P-F (12mm) of the partial replacement. There are some slump cones found out of the targeted slump (20mm-80mm) for C 25 grade concrete depend on ASTM C143-89 or ACI 211.1-81, the replace percentage of P- D, P-E, and P-F slump cone was out of limit. Therefore, the concrete is not workable for the construction industry at a replacement percentage higher than 35% P-D (partial replacement) of Calcined Montmorillonite clay powder modifier and wastage of khat husk ash for OPC.

As the partial replacement percentage increase, the hardened concrete slowly decreases. The result tests of compressive, split, and flexural strength of concrete on the proportion of P-B (85%, 10%, 5% replacement percentage) can resist loads as follows (20.20MPa and 75.2%), (2.32MPa and 89.23%), and (1.87MPa and 59.41%) by 28th days respectively. Therefore, the proportion of P-B has achieved the compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of concrete for the construction industry compared to the P-A (100%, 0%, and 0% partial replacement). Based on the laboratory test results and analyses of the hardened concrete at the 28th days as follows: - compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of Concrete was achieved 18.424MPa (15% replacement), 2.02MPa (15% replace), and 1.59MPa (15% replacement), respectively. Therefore the compressive, flexural and split tensile strength of concrete with varying percent amount of Calcined of MMT clay and Wastage of KHA as partial replacement of OPC, the optimum amount of MMT and KHA for normal concrete strength is 15%

The durability of compressive strength of concrete cubes prepared with thermally activated TP1 (Hancalu Hundessa campus) Montmorillonite clay and waste khat husk ash as SCM to cement provide blend for durable construction material. The clay was firstly heated/calcined at 8000C, and the wastage of Khat husk was burned up to changes to ash. Thus, it was replaced with ordinary Portland cement by different percentages of partial replacement to cast compressive strength of concrete cubes.

The control and MMT clay powder and KHA modified cubes were cured in normal curing water. The durability of concrete was achieved depending on the compressive strength unless the factors of durability in this study minimize in the case of shrinkage of concrete and dry-wet of concrete; as the test results, the compressive strength of concrete for each proportion is gradually increasing daily the strength of concrete. Thus durability is resisted load depending on the duration of concrete was increasing as per as the compressive strength of concrete. The concrete weight is gradually decreasing, and the volume of concrete is also reduced, then the factors of carbonation shrinkage do not affect the concrete. So, it has the durability of concrete achieved by partial replacement of cement with MMT clay and KHA on the life service of concrete. Generally, from the test result was conducted, the study is concluded that the Calcined of montmorillonite clay powder and waste of khat husk ash can replace with cement up to P-B (15% replace) or P-B (85%, 10%, and 5%) by the weight of normal concrete.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to appreciate Ambo University Hachalu Hundessa, Institute of Technology, and for all the individuals who assisted them in the conduct of this novel research work.

Disclosure statement

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

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