Understanding traditional seismic strategies is necessary to conduct appropriate restoration of historic buildings and city centers located in earthquake-prone areas. But, the fast disappearance of vernacular built heritage and of the associated popular knowledge and know-how, along with the spread of inappropriate maintenance works, make it very difficult. To overcome these obstacles, it is suggested to broaden the scope of observations by including both larger geographical areas and elements that do not appear as seismic features at first consideration. This paper illustrates the relevance and the limits of this approach by applying it to the case study of Yazd historic city center. Yazd is located in a moderate seismic area and is famous for its well-preserved historic city center, with a high number of Qajar adobe buildings in various conditions. The authors combined literature review, direct observation of numerous buildings and a deeper study of four Qajar houses to conduct the first part of their research. The data collected mainly relates to the geometrical features, the materials used and the interconnections between elements at different scales. Their analyses led to the elaboration of several assumptions on the seismic behaviour of the studied adobe buildings and vaults and on the distortions some features may have suffered. To validate these assumptions, two methodologies were used. Both are illustrated in this paper through the study of the insertion of baked bricks in adobe vaults. The first one is based on observation campaigns on damaged houses. The second one is based on experimental works, with tests conducted on the shear strengths of masonry made with mud mortars and adobes or baked bricks to better understand how builders benefited from mixing these materials in an adobe vault. Finally, the authors discuss the limits of the method and the extent to which restoration projects can benefit from it.
 Hofmann, M. Le facteur séisme dans l’architecture vernaculaire. Un décryptage entre déterminants culturels, types de structures et ressources cognitives parasismiques. PhD thesis. EPFL : EPFL – ENSAG (2015)
 Feilden, B.M. Between two earthquakes: cultural property in seismic zones. Rome : Marina del Rey, Calif., USA : ICCROM ; Getty Conservation Institute. (1987) 103 p. ISBN 978-0-89236-128-1
 Ferrigni, F., European University Centre For The Cultural Heritage (dir.). Ancient buildings and earthquakes: reducing the vulnerability of historical built- up environment by recovering the local seismic culture ; principles, methods, potentialities. Bari : Edipuglia. (2005) 360 p. ISBN 978-88-7228-403-2
 Modarres, A. Modernizing Yazd: selective historical memory and the fate of vernacular architecture. Costa Mesa, Calif : Mazda Publishers. (2006) 199p. ISBN 978-1-56859-140-7
 Fallah Aliabadi, S., Sarsangi, A., Modiri, E. « The social and physical vulnerability assessment of old texture against earthquake (case study: Fahadan district in Yazd City)». In : Arabian Journal of Geosciences
 BHRC, Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings (Standard No. 2800). Fourth Revision. Tehran, Iran: Building and Housing Research Center, Iran (2015) (in Persian).
 Lourenço, P.B., Oliveira D.V., et al. "Simplified indexes for the seismic assessment of masonry buildings: International database and validation". In: Engineering Failure Analysis. (2013) 34:585-605. DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2013.02.014
 Sadeghi, N.H., Oliveira D.V. et al. "Seismic performance of historical vaulted adobe constructions: a numerical case study from Yazd, Iran". In : International Journal of Architectural Heritage (2017). DOI: 10.1080/15583058.2017.1422573
 Lourenço, P.B., Greco, F.,et al. Seismic Retrofitting Project - Modeling of Prototype Buildings. Getty Conservation Institute : Los Angeles. (2019) ISBN: 978-1-937433-63-5
 Jarpa, T.R. Détermination de la période fondamentale des bâtiments. Proposition d’un outil simplifié à l’usage des architectes. Paris : ENSAPB. (2014).
 Lourenço, P.B., Roque, J.A. « Simplified indexes for the seismic vulnerability of ancient masonry buildings ». In : Construction and Building Materials. (2006). Vol. 20, n° 4, p. 200-208. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.027
 Billard, A. Risque sismique et patrimoine bâti: réduction de la vulnérabilité : savoirs et savoir-faire. Paris; La Plaine Saint-Denis : Eyrolles ; AFNOR. (2014) ISBN 978-2-212-13613-5.
 Gelfi, P. “Role of horizontal backfill pressure on the stability of masonry vaults”. In: Internationale Zeitschrift fur Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege. (2002) 8. Jahrang, Heft 6, 573-590
 Peyret, N. Dissipation de l’énergie mécanique dans les assemblages : effet du frottement en sollicitation dynamique. PhD Thesis. Paris : Université Paris-Est (2012)
 Crete, E., Yadav S. et al. "Timber seismic bands: correlating their characteristics with local seismic activities and understanding their effects under seismic loads". In : AntiSeismic Vernacular Heritage of Anatolia and Beyond. Istanbul : ICOMOS ISCARSAH Turkey. (2018) ISBN: 978-605-245-789-4
 Yadav, S., Sieffert, Y., Crete, E., Vieux-Champagne, F., Garnier, P. "Mechanical behaviour of different type of shear band connections being used in reconstruction housing in Nepal". In : Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, (2018) 174, pp.701-712. ⟨10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.121⟩. ⟨hal-01780074⟩
 Caimi, A., Moles, O., Crete, E. Local building cultures for resilience and development - Examples of local good practices and technical solutions. Villefontaine : CRAterre. (2017) ISBN 979-10-96446-13-1
 Shakouri, R. Habitat résidentiel durable en Iran - savoirs-faire traditionnels et technologies nouvelles à Yazd. PhD thesis. Grenoble : Pierre Mendes France. (2008)
 Arbabian, H. « Architectural Issues in Earthquake Rehabilitation of the Iranian Cultural Heritage | CICOP Italia ». In :
 Maini, S. Diagnostic of damages to vaulted structures Arg-e-Bam and Bam area, Iran. Auroville : Auroville Earth Institute (2004)
 Joffroy, T., Moriset, S., Hajmirbaba, M., Gandreau, D. Bam, Iran - Final report. (2006)
 Bolorizadeh, M. The Secrets to Earthquake Resistance of Mud-brick Structures in Bam, After 2004 Earthquake, with a Methodological Approach. Yazd : Faculté d’Architecture de Yazd (2015)
 Deghan, M., Laboratoty analysis of Yazd clay based on swelling potential and mineral components. Tehran : Faculty of civil engineering, University Amir Kebir (2003) (in Persian)
 Hejazi, M., Saradj, F. M. Persian Architectural Heritage: Architecture, Structure and Conservation. Southampton : WIT Press. (2014) 527 p. ISBN 978-1-78466-070-3.
 Dhanasekar, M., Kleeman, P. W., Page, A. W.: Biaxial Stress‐strain Relations for Brick Masonry. In: Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), v. 111, n. 5 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(1985)111:5(1085)
 Alecci, V., Fagone, M., Rotunno, T., & De Stefano, M.. Shear strength of brick masonry walls assembled with different types of mortar. Construction and Building Materials, 40, 1038–1045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.107 (2013).
Are you one of the authors of this document?