Electric vehicles (EVs) have received wide attention due to their higher energy efficiency and lower emissions. However, the random charging and discharging behaviors of substantial numbers of EVs may lead to safety risk problems in a distribution network. Reasonable price incentives can guide EVs through orderly charging and discharging, and further provide a feasible solution to reduce the operational risk of the distribution network. Considering three typical electricity prices, EV charging/discharging load models are built. Then, a Probabilistic Load Flow (PLF) method using cumulants and Gram-Charlier series is proposed to obtain the power flow of the distribution network including massive numbers of EVs. In terms of the risk indexes of node voltage and line flow, the operational risk of the distribution network can be estimated in detail. From the simulations of an IEEE-33 bus system and an IEEE 69-bus system, the demonstrated results show that reasonable charging and discharging prices are conducive to reducing the peak-valley difference, and consequently the risks of the distribution network can be decreased to a certain extent.

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The different versions of the original document can be found in:

https://doaj.org/toc/1996-1073 under the license cc-by
https://academic.microsoft.com/#/detail/2499895953 under the license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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Published on 01/01/2016

Volume 2016, 2016
DOI: 10.3390/en9070560
Licence: Other

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