Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, such as Directed Energy Deposition (DED), offer great potential for producing complex and customized components. To optimize these processes, accurate simulations and numerical modeling techniques are essential. This paper presents a study on the thermal and mechanical calibration of DED AM process simulations on a part-scale. The research aims to develop a comprehensive finite element model that incorporates the multi-physics nature of the DED process, accurately predicting thermal behavior, internal stresses, and distortion of manufactured components. The calibration process involves experimental measurements and simulations using Abaqus software. The thermal calibration involves calibrating parameters such as emissivity, absorptivity, and convection coefficients, while the mechanical calibration focuses on plastic strain properties. Additionally, the study explores the simulation of multi-material prints and functionally graded materials. The results demonstrate that the models can accurately represent thermal and mechanical phenomena, with calibration of material properties playing a crucial role. The paper concludes with recommendations for further validation, including demonstrator prints and investigations into simulation parameters. This research contributes to advancing the understanding and application of DED AM simulations, enabling more accurate and reliable predictions for industrial applications.
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