div>Scientific problems are solved by finding the optimal solution for a specific task. Some problems can be solved analytically while other problems are solved using data driven methods. The use of digital technologies to improve the transportation of people and goods, which is referred to as intelligent mobility, is one of the principal beneficiaries of data driven solutions. Autonomous vehicles are at the heart of the developments that propel Intelligent Mobility. Due to the high dimensionality and complexities involved in real-world environments, it needs to become commonplace for intelligent mobility to use data-driven solutions. As it is near impossible to program decision making logic for every eventuality manually. While recent developments of data-driven solutions such as deep learning facilitate machines to learn effectively from large datasets, the application of techniques within safety-critical systems such as driverless cars remain scarce.</div>
Autonomous vehicles need to be able to make context-driven decisions autonomously in different environments in which they operate. The recent literature on driverless vehicle research is heavily focused only on road or highway environments but have discounted pedestrianized areas and indoor environments. These unstructured environments tend to have more clutter and change rapidly over time. Therefore, for intelligent mobility to make a significant impact on human life, it is vital to extend the application beyond the structured environments. To further advance intelligent mobility, researchers need to take cues from multiple sensor streams, and multiple machine learning algorithms so that decisions can be robust and reliable. Only then will machines indeed be able to operate in unstructured and dynamic environments safely. Towards addressing these limitations, this thesis investigates data driven solutions towards crucial building blocks in intelligent mobility. Specifically, the thesis investigates multimodal sensor data fusion, machine learning, multimodal deep representation learning and its application of intelligent mobility. This work demonstrates that mobile robots can use multimodal machine learning to derive driver policy and therefore make autonomous decisions.
To facilitate autonomous decisions necessary to derive safe driving algorithms, we present an algorithm for free space detection and human activity recognition. Driving these decision-making algorithms are specific datasets collected throughout this study. They include the Loughborough London Autonomous Vehicle dataset, and the Loughborough London Human Activity Recognition dataset. The datasets were collected using an autonomous platform design and developed in house as part of this research activity. The proposed framework for Free-Space Detection is based on an active learning paradigm that leverages the relative uncertainty of multimodal sensor data streams (ultrasound and camera). It utilizes an online learning methodology to continuously update the learnt model whenever the vehicle experiences new environments. The proposed Free Space Detection algorithm enables an autonomous vehicle to self-learn, evolve and adapt to new environments never encountered before. The results illustrate that online learning mechanism is superior to one-off training of deep neural networks that require large datasets to generalize to unfamiliar surroundings.
The thesis takes the view that human should be at the centre of any technological development related to artificial intelligence. It is imperative within the spectrum of intelligent mobility where an autonomous vehicle should be aware of what humans are doing in its vicinity. Towards improving the robustness of human activity recognition, this thesis proposes a novel algorithm that classifies point-cloud data originated from Light Detection and Ranging sensors. The proposed algorithm leverages multimodality by using the camera data to identify humans and segment the region of interest in point cloud data. The corresponding 3-dimensional data was converted to a Fisher Vector Representation before being classified by a deep Convolutional Neural Network. The proposed algorithm classifies the indoor activities performed by a human subject with an average precision of 90.3%. When compared to an alternative point cloud classifier, PointNet, , the proposed framework out preformed on all classes.
The developed autonomous testbed for data collection and algorithm validation, as well as the multimodal data-driven solutions for driverless cars, is the major contributions of this thesis. It is anticipated that these results and the testbed will have significant implications on the future of intelligent mobility by amplifying the developments of intelligent driverless vehicles.</div
The different versions of the original document can be found in:
DOIS: 10.26174/thesis.lboro.12245483.v1 10.26174/thesis.lboro.12245483