Published in Int. Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering Vol. 30 (8), pp. 1577-1593, 1990
In this paper the possibilities of the viscous voided shell approach for deriving bending/membrane finite elements for sheet metal forming problems are presented. These elements can be selectively used for membrane or full bending analysis of some parts of the sheet according to the nature of the deformation. Numerical aspects of this approach are discussed and some examples of application are also given.