In this work, a formulation for rod structures, able to consider coupled geometric and constitutive sources of nonlinearity in both the static and the dynamic range, is developed. It is extended for allowing the inclusion of passive energy dissipating elements as a special rod element and geometric irregularities as a full three-dimensional body connected to the framed structure by means of a two-scale model. The proposed formulation is based on the Reissner-Simo geometrically exact formulation for rods considering an initially curved reference configuration and extended to include arbitrary distribution of composite materials in the cross sections. Each material point of the cross section is assumed to be composed of several simple materials with their own thermodynamically consistent constitutive laws. The simple mixing rule is used for treating the resulting composite. Cross sections are meshed into a grid of quadrilaterals, each of them corresponding to a fiber directed along the axis of the beam. A mesh independent response is obtained by means of the regularization of the energy dissipated at constitutive level considering the characteristic length of the mesh and the fracture energy of the materials. Local and global damage indices have been developed based on the ratio between the visco-elastic and nonlinear stresses. The consistent linearization of the weak form of the momentum balance equations is performed considering the effects of rate dependent inelasticity. Due to the fact that the deformation map belongs to a nonlinear manifold, an appropriated version of Newmark's scheme and of the iterative updating procedure of the involved variables is developed. The space discretization of the linearized problem is performed using the standard Galerkin finite element approach. A Newton-Raphson type of iterative scheme is used for the step-by-step solution of the discrete problem. A specific element for energy dissipating devices is developed, based on the rod model but releasing the rotational degrees of freedom. Appropriated constitutive relations are given for a wide variety of possible dissipative mechanisms. Several numerical examples have been included for the validation of the proposed formulation. The examples include elastic and inelastic finite deformation response of framed structures with initially straight and curved beams. Comparisons with existing literature is performed for the case of plasticity and new results are presented for degrading and composite materials. Those examples show how the present formulation is able to capture different complex mechanical phenomena such as the uncoupling of the dynamic response from resonance due to inelastic incursions and suppression of the high frequency content. The study of realistic flexible pre-cast and cast in place reinforced concrete framed structures subjected to static and dynamic actions is also carried out. Detailed studies regarding to the evolution of local damage indices, energy dissipation and ductility demands are presented. The studies include the seismic response of concrete structures with energy dissipating devices. Advantages of the use of passive control are verified.

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Published on 01/01/2008

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