High Reliability Organizations (HROs) are defined as enterprises that perform missions involving processes that require extraordinary measures to maintain low risk in the presence of disruptions that could result in catastrophic events (e.g. radiation or well leaks leading to long-term environmental damage) or fatalities (e.g. epidemics, air traffic control). These types of enterprises occur in multiple domains ranging from health care, processing of raw materials, energy and water distribution, and vehicle systems management and control. The existing literature describes the diverse characteristics of HROs and the organizational design to manage these characteristics. This paper describes a comparison of the properties of the enterprises (“what”) and the organizational structures (“how”) used to achieve the desired high reliability for: (1) Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Traffic Control System, (2) Pacific Electric and Gas Company's Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant (DCNPP), and (3) Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). A detailed review of HRO literature, case studies and organizational reports, performance plans and technical plans identify the following properties of the HRO design: (1) all three domains require the employment of skilled personnel that are certified by a regulatory (federal or state) authority and require specialized training; (2) certification of operations is overseen by regulatory authorities (federal and state); and (3) metrics are focused on risks. Examples of the metrics for each enterprise are as follows: runway incursions, system risk event rates, number of near midair collisions for air traffic control; length and quality of life, pain levels, infections for children's health care; and nuclear power plants use reactor accidents, acute radiation exposures resulting in fatalities, release of radioactive materials that result in significant radiation exposure for nuclear power plants. These enterprises focus on making consistently good decisions that result in higher quality, safer and more reliable operations.

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https://academic.microsoft.com/#/detail/2065587557 under the license cc0

DOIS: 10.1109/icnsurv.2013.6548561 10.1109/icnsurv.2013.6548651

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Published on 01/01/2013

Volume 2013, 2013
DOI: 10.1109/icnsurv.2013.6548561
Licence: Other

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