In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable impact assessment, the on- and off-switching of the system should be taken into account. Furthermore, because ACC systems are less cooperative than normal drivers, the reference behavior should include this cooperative behavior. In this research, cooperative driver models for normal drivers were developed as well as an ACC model that included on- and off-switching for the microscopic simulation environment known as the intelligent transportation systems modeler. Parameter settings were validated with data from the pilot. The results clearly show that on- and off-switching behavior has a large influence on traffic flow. This effect depends on the degree of congestion. In congestion, the effect of the ACC is larger. Without the possibility of switching it on and off, the ACC has a positive impact on throughput. However, when the ACC can be switched on and off, it has a negative impact on throughput.
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