In this monograph, a complete review of the state of the art of the seismic vulnerability of motorway bridges is carried out. The work begins with a review of the damage caused by the last major earthquakes in the world. Next, the theoretical framework of the methods of evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of structures is described. Then, different methodologies for the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of bridges are examined in detail. Advances in assessing their seismic vulnerability should be sought using expert judgment, the study of damage data associated with past earthquakes and the numerical simulation of bridge response. For this reason, in the monograph the seismic vulnerability evaluation methods are classified into the following groups: (1) methods based on vulnerability indexes; (2) methods that use structural analysis; (3) methods based on statistical evaluations and expert opinion; and (4) methods that use the observed damage statistics. Finally, some of the main methods for obtaining the indices that characterize the importance of motorway bridges are described, as well as indices for the evaluation of the liquefaction effect.