The cold climate environment can cause damage to engineering structures such as roadway/railways and pipelines. There has been an increased use of finite element numerical models to study and understand the processes involved. The primary difficulty in the application of such numerical models is the lack of proper coupling between the related processes of water, thermal, and airflow. This paper presents classic benchmarks solved with a finite element numerical modeling code which demonstrates the correct coupling of the thermal, hydraulic, and air (THA) processes. The use of this technology potentially opens the use of numerical models to a wider range of applications in artic regions.
The different versions of the original document can be found in: