On-road electric vehicle recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of electric vehicles into a practical transportation option. This study focuses upon assessing the need for recharging infrastructure for long distance travel for a large market share of electric vehicles, finding the optimal infrastructure deployment, and understanding the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits associated with the optimal infrastructure deployment. The analysis considers quick-charging and battery-switching as plausible recharging technologies. Results show: (i) the promotion of electric vehicles is beneficial when considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, tax redistribution, and environmental externalities, even with a relatively modest market share; (ii) the number of required recharging stations for satisfaction of the travel demand is at the magnitude of 1â2% of the current gasoline infrastructure, under the assumption of wide availability of off-road recharging at home and the workplace; (iii) the optimal deployment of the recharging stations is along the main national highways outside of urban conurbations, under the assumption of wide availability of home recharging; (iv) the battery-switching technology is far more attractive to the consumer than the quick-charging technology for long-distance travel requiring more than one recharging visit.
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