Resumen

Los nuevos flujos informativos y el derrumbe del monopolio periodístico en la intermediación con el público han creado oportunidades y disfunciones en la información biomédica. A los problemas de la exageración y la comercialización, se han añadido los relacionados con la falta de filtros y la difusión de la mala ciencia. En este artículo se discuten los retos que plantean estos problemas y las perspectivas en la investigación académica, la comunicación y el periodismo.

Texto completo

The PDF file did not load properly or your web browser does not support viewing PDF files. Download directly to your device: Download PDF document

Referencias

Baker, Monya (2016). “1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility”. Nature, v. 533, n. 7604, pp. 452-454. https://doi.org/10.1038/533452a

Bauer, Martin (1998). “The medicalization of science news - from the “rocket-scalpel” to the ‘gene-meteorite’ complex”. Social science information, v. 37, n. 4, pp. 731-751. https://doi.org/0803973233

Belluz, Julia; Plumer, Brad; Resnick, Brian (2016). “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists”. Vox, Sept. 7th. http://www.vox.com/2016/7/14/12016710/science-challeges-research-funding-peer-review-process

Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Negrín-Hernández, Miguel; Alguacil, Juan; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Cantarero, David; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Casino, Gonzalo; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; García-Calvente, Mar; González-Zapata, Laura-Inés; Epstein, David; Hernan, Mariano; Linares, Cristina; Posenato-García, Leila; Ruiz-Cantero, María-Teresa; Segura, Andreu; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria; Sarria, Antonio; Peiro, Rosana; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos (2018). “Gaceta Sanitaria en 2017. Mejorando la calidad de nuestra revista”. Gaceta sanitaria, v. 32, n. 2, pp. 117-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.02.002

Bosch, Fèlix; Escalas, Clàudia; Forteza, Ainoa; Serés, Elisabet; Casino, Gonzalo (2018). “Lista de comprobación para mejorar la información sobre fármacos en la prensa: la importancia de informar sobre las fases y la incertidumbre de la investigación”. Revista española de comunicación en salud, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 203-214. https://doi.org/10.20318/recs.2018.4498

Camí, Jordi; Méndez-Vásquez, Raúl; Suñén-Pinyol, Eduard (2008). “Evolución de la productividad científica de España en biomedicina (1981-2006)”. Redes, v. 10, pp. 24-29.

Casino, Gonzalo (2015a). “Concisión frente a completitud en las noticias médicas. Análisis de los breves de biomedicina en el diario El País”. Panacea, v. 16, n. 42, pp. 184-189. http://www.tremedica.org/panacea/IndiceGeneral/n42_tribuna-GCasino2.pdf

Casino, Gonzalo (2015b). “Información de las revistas de biomedicina mediada por comunicados de prensa. El caso del diario El País”. Panacea, v. 16, n. 42, pp. 151-157. http://www.tremedica.org/panacea/IndiceGeneral/n42_tribuna-GCasino.pdf

Casino, Gonzalo (2018). “Cita periodística: impacto de las revistas y los artículos científicos en la prensa generalista”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 3, p. 692. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.may.22

Casino, Gonzalo; Rius, Roser; Cobo, Erik (2017). “National citation patterns of NEJM, The Lancet, JAMA and The BMJ in the lay press: a quantitative content analysis”. BMJ Open, v. 7, n. 11, p. e018705. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018705

Cassels, Alan; Hughes, Merrilee A.; Cole, Carol; Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel; McCormack, James P. (2003). “Drugs in the news: an analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage of new prescription drugs”. CMAJ, v. 168, n. 9, pp. 1133-1137. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/168/9/1133.short

De-Semir, Vladimir; Ribas, Cristina; Revuelta, Gemma (1998). “Press releases of science journal articles and subsequent newspaper stories on the same topic”. Jama, v. 280, n. 3, pp. 294-295. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.3.294

Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François (2017). “Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers”. Plos one, v. 12, n. 2, p. e0172650. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172650

Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François (2018). “Scientific uncertainty in the press: how newspapers describe initial biomedical findings”. Science communication, v. 40, n. 1, pp. 124-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1075547017752166

Fanelli, Daniele (2013). “Any publicity is better than none: Newspaper coverage increases citations, in the UK more than in Italy”. Scientometrics, v. 95, n. 3, pp. 1167-1177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-012-0925-0

Fecyt (2018). “IX encuesta de percepción social de la ciencia y la tecnología en España. Informe de resultados”. https://icono.fecyt.es/informes-y-publicaciones/percepcion-social-de-la-ciencia-y-la-tecnologia-en-espana

Goldacre, Ben (2007). “How doctors can get behind the headlines”. British medical journal, v. 334, n. 7594, p. 613. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39160.566285.47

Goldacre, Ben (2009). Bad science. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN: 978 0 00 728487 0

Gonon, François; Konsman, Jan-Pieter; Cohen, David; Boraud, Thomas (2012). “Why most biomedical findings echoed by newspapers turn out to be false: The case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”. Plos one, v. 7, n. 9, p. e44275. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044275

Haynes, R. Brian (2005). “bmjupdates+, a new free service for evidence-based clinical practice”. Evidence-based nursing, v. 8, n. 2, p. 39. https://doi.org/10.1136/EBN.8.2.39

Hochman, Michael; Hochman, Steven; Bor, David; McCormick, Danny (2008). “News media coverage of medication research: reporting pharmaceutical company funding and use of generic medication names”. Jama, v. 300, n. 13, pp. 1544-1550. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.13.1544

Ioannidis, John P. A. (2005). “Why most published research findings are false”. Plos medicine, v. 2, n. 8, e124. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124

Jakovljević, Miro; Ostojić, Ljerka (2016). “Science and pseudoscience in medicine: evidence-based vs. evidence-biased medicine”. Psychiatria danubina, v. 28, n. Suppl-2, pp. 186-190. http://www.psychiatria-danubina.com/UserDocsImages/pdf/dnb_vol28_sup2/dnb_vol28_sup2_2.pdf

Kiernan, Vincent (2003). “Diffusion of news about research”. Science communication, v. 25, n. 1, pp. 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1075547003255297

Lai, William-Yuk-Yeu; Lane, Trevor (2009). “Characteristics of medical research news reported on front pages of newspapers”. Plos one, v. 4, n. 7, e6103. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006103

López-Pérez, Lourdes; Olvera-Lobo, María-Dolores (2016). “Comunicación pública de la ciencia a través de la web 2.0. El caso de los centros de investigación y universidades públicas de España”. El profesional de la información, v. 25, n. 3, p. 441. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2016.may.14

Mathelus, Sharon; Pittman, Ginny; Yablonski-Crepeau, Jill (2012). “Promotion of research articles to the lay press: a summary of a three-year project”. Learned publishing, v. 25, n. 3, pp. 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1087/20120307

McGrath, Brent M.; Kapadia, Ronak K. (2009). “Is the medium distorting the message? How the news media communicates advances in medical research to the public”. Dalhousie medical journal, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 11-17. https://doi.org/10.15273/dmj.Vol36No1.3871

Moynihan, Ray; Bero, Lisa; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Henry, David; Lee, Kirby; Watkins, Judy; Mah, Connie; Soumerai, Stephen B. (2000). “Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications”. New England journal of medicine, v. 342, n. 22, pp. 1645-1650. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200006013422206

Moynihan, Ray; Cassels, Alan (2006). Medicamentos que nos enferman e industrias farmacéuticas que nos convierten en pacientes, Barcelona: Terapias Verdes, ISBN 978-84-96194-88-4

Munafò, Marcus R.; Nosek, Brian A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Button, Katherine S.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Percie du Sert, Nathalie; Simonsohn, Uri; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Ware, Jennifer J.; Ioannidis, John P. A. (2017). “A manifesto for reproducible science”. Nature human behaviour, v. 1, n. 1, p. 0021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-016-0021

Oxman, Andrew D.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Cook, Deborah J.; Jaeschke, Roman; Heddle, Nancy; Keller, Jana (1993). “An index of scientific quality for health reports in the lay press”. Journal of clinical epidemiology, v. 46, n. 9, pp. 987-1001.

Phillips, David P.; Kanter, Elliot J.; Bednarczyk, Bridget; Tastad, Patricia L. (1991). “Importance of the lay press in the transmission of medical knowledge to the scientific community”. New England journal of medicine, v. 325, n. 16, pp. 1180-1183. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110173251620

Reid, Adam J.; Malone, Paul S. C. (2008). “Plastic surgery in the press”. Journal of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, v. 61, n. 8, pp. 866-869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2008.06.012

Repiso, Rafael; Chaparro-Domínguez, María-Ángeles (2018). “Universidades españolas en la prensa extranjera. Análisis de su cobertura periodística”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 1, pp. 86-94. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.ene.08

Robinson, Ailie; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Bryden, A. N.; McKee, Martin (2013). “Analysis of health stories in daily newspapers in the UK”. Public health, v. 127, n. 1, pp. 39-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.10.001

Salaverría, Ramón (2016). “Redefinir al comunicador”. El profesional de la información, v. 25, n. 2, pp. 163-167. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2016.mar.02

Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven (2003). “On the prevention and treatment of exaggeration”. Journal of general internal medicine, v. 18, n. 2, pp. 153-154. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21216.x

Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven; Andrews, Alice; Stukel, Therese A. (2012). “Influence of medical journal press releases on the quality of associated newspaper coverage: retrospective cohort study”. British medical journal, v. 344, d8164. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d8164

Schwitzer, Gary (2007). “Too brief to matter - Part two: The benefits/harms of briefs and digests”. Health news review, Sept. 14th. https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2007/09/oo-brief-to-matter-part-two-the-benefitsharms-of-briefs-and-digests/

Schwitzer, Gary (2008). “How do US journalists cover treatments, tests, products, and procedures? An evaluation of 500 stories”. Plos medicine, v. 5, n. 5, pp. 0700-0704. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050095

Shoemaker, Pamela J. (2006). “News and newsworthiness: a commentary”. Communications, v. 31, n. 1, pp. 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1515/COMMUN.2006.007

Smith, Richard (2005). “Medical journals are an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies”. Plos medicine, v. 2, n. 5, pp. 0364-0366. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020138

Sumner, Petroc; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andrew; Bott, Lewis; Adams, Rachel; Venetis, Christos A.; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Chambers, Christopher D. (2016). “Exaggerations and caveats in press releases and health-related science news”. Plos one, v. 11, n. 12, e0168217. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168217

Sumner, Petroc; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A.; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred; Chambers, Christopher D. (2014). “The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study”. British medical journal, v. 349, g7015. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g7015

Ufarte-Ruiz, María-José; Peralta-García, Lidia; Murcia-Verdú, Francisco-José (2018). “Fact checking: un nuevo desafío del periodismo”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, p. 733-741. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.jul.02

Varona-Aramburu, David; Sánchez-Muñoz, Gema (2016). “Las redes sociales como fuentes de información periodística: motivos para la desconfianza entre los periodistas españoles”. El profesional de la información, v. 25, n. 5, p. 795-802. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2016.sep.10

Walsh-Childers, Kim; Braddock, Jennifer; Rabaza, Cristina; Schwitzer, Gary (2018). “One step forward, one step back: changes in news coverage of medical interventions”. Health communication, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 174-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1250706

Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M. (2006). “What’s the rush? The dissemination and adoption of preliminary research results”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, v. 98, n. 6, pp. 372-373. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj115

Yavchitz, Amélie; Boutron, Isabelle; Bafeta, Aida; Marroun, Ibrahim; Charles, Pierre; Mantz, Jean; Ravaud, Philippe (2012). “Misrepresentation of randomized controlled trials in press releases and news coverage: a cohort study”. Plos medicine, v. 9, n. 9, e1001308. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308

Zeraatkar, Dena; Obeda, Michael; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S.; Hirsh, Jack (2017). “The development and validation of an instrument to measure the quality of health research reports in the lay media”. BMC public health, v. 17, n. 1, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4259-y

Back to Top

Document information

Published on 04/03/19
Accepted on 04/03/19
Submitted on 04/03/19

Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019
DOI: 10.3145/epi.2019.mar.05
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

Document Score

0

Views 2
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?