Two full-scale timbrel cross vaults subjected to vertical settlements in one of their supports were tested at the ICITECH laboratories of the Universitat Politècnica de València. In one of the vaults a support was moved downwards, while the other was subjected to upward-downward displacements in one support. Both tests are described and analysed in detail in Torres et al. [1,2]. Both vaults presented certain levels of post-test damage in the form of cracks and significant displacements. In order to analyse the effectiveness of the reinforcement of previously damaged vaults, both were strengthened with TRM and subjected to further testing in which vertical settlements were applied to one support. The TRM strengthening comprised an extrados layer composed of a 25x25mm glass grid embedded into two approximately 5 mm thick layers of cementitious matrix. The TRM strengthening was able to withstand higher peak loads and prevent the formation of cracks along the extrados surface of the structure, while as expected, ductility increased. A 3D macro-modelling FE strategy on Abaqus commercial software was also adopted to study the behaviour of the vaults during the tests.

Full document

The PDF file did not load properly or your web browser does not support viewing PDF files. Download directly to your device: Download PDF document


[1] Bertolesi E., Adam J.M., Rinaudo P., Calderón P.A. Research and practice on masonry cross vaults – A review, Engineering Structures 180 (2019), pp. 67-88.

[2] D’Altri A.M., Castellazzi G., de Miranda S., Tralli A. Seismic-induced damage in historical masonry vaults: A case-study in the 2012 Emilia earthquake-stricken area. J Build Eng 13 (2017), pp. 224–43. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.005.

[3] Atamturktur S., Bornn L., Hemez F. Vibration characteristics of vaulted masonry monuments undergoing differential support settlement. Eng Struct 33 (2011), pp. 2472–84. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.04.020.

[4] Acikgoz S., Soga K., Woodhams J. Evaluation of the response of a vaulted masonry structure to differential settlements using point cloud data and limit analyses. Constr Build Mater 150 (2017), pp. 916–31. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.075.

[5] Carfagnini C., Baraccani S., Silvestri S., Theodossopoulos D. The effects of in-plane shear displacements at the springings of Gothic cross vaults. Constr Build Mater 186 (2018), pp. 219–32. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.055.

[6] Alexandros L., Thanasis S.K., Triantafillou C. State-of-the-art on strengthening of masonry structures with textile reinforced mortar (TRM), Constr Build Mater 188 (2018), pp. 1221-1233.

[7] Del Zoppo M., Di Ludovico M., Balsamo A., Prota A. In-plane shear capacity of tuff masonry walls with traditional and innovative Composite Reinforced Mortars (CRM), Constr Build Mater 210 (2019), pp. 289-300.

[8] Caggegi C., Lanoye E., Djama K., Bassil A., Gabor A. Tensile behaviour of a basalt TRM strengthening system: influence of mortar and reinforcing textile ratios, Compos Part B Eng 130 (2017), pp. 90-102.

[9] Ascione L., De Felice G., De Santis S. A qualification method for externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) strengthening systems, Compos Part B Eng 78 (2015), pp. 497-506.

[10] Wang X., Lam C.C., PanIu V. Comparison of different types of TRM composites for strengthening masonry panels, Constr Build Mater 219, (2019), pp. 184-194.

[11] Augenti N., Parisi F., Prota A., Manfredi G. In-plane lateral response of a full-scale masonry sub-assemblage with and without an inorganic matrix–grid strengthening system, J Compos Constr 15 (2011), pp. 578-590.

[12] Kariou F.A., Triantafyllou S.P., Bournas D.A., Koutasc L.N. Out-of-plane response of masonry walls strengthened using textile-mortar system, Constr Build Mater 165 (2018), pp. 769-781.

[13] D'Ambra C., Lignola G.P., Prota A., Sacco E., Fabbrocino F. Experimental performance of FRCM retrofit on out-of-plane behaviour of clay brick walls, Composites Part B 148 (2018), pp. 198-206.

[14] Giamundo V., Lignola G.P., Maddaloni G., Balsamo A., Prota A., Manfredi G. Experimental investigation of the seismic performances of IMG reinforcement on curved masonry elements, Composites: Part B 70 (2015), pp. 53–63.

[15] Maddaloni G., Di Ludovico M., Balsamo A., Maddaloni G., Prota A. Dynamic assessment of innovative retrofit techniques for masonry buildings, Composites Part B: Engineering 147 (2018), pp. 147-161.

[16] Torres B., Bertolesi E., Moragues J.J., Calderón P.A., Adam J.M. Experimental investigation of a full-scale timbrel masonry cross vault subjected to vertical settlement, Constr Build Mater 221 (2019), pp. 421-432.

[17] Torres B., Bertolesi E., Calderón P.A., Moragues J.J., Adam J.M. A full-scale timbrel cross vault subjected to vertical cyclical displacements in one of its supports, Engineering Structures 183 (2019), pp. 791-804.

Back to Top

Document information

Published on 30/11/21
Submitted on 30/11/21

Volume Repair and strengthening strategies and techniques, 2021
DOI: 10.23967/sahc.2021.309
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

Document Score


Views 7
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?