The seismic vulnerability assessment of the historic center of Cusco (Peru), an important UNESCO world heritage site, is dealt with in this paper. First, historical development of the city is presented through an in-depth historical analysis of its transformation over time, from the Inca empire to modern days. Then, an extensive in-situ survey activity, that allowed to collect several information about the main structural features concerning ordinary residential buildings, is shown. Based on the collected data, an empirical method calibrated on Italian historic centersfrom the authors is applied. It allowed to obtain Damage Probability Matrices and Fragility Curves for different earthquake intensities, as well as to assess the probability of exceeding certain levels of damage when seismic events of different intensities occur. Based on these predicted damage frequencies, it is possible to prevent irremediable losses and to propose retrofitting interventions which can lead to the seismic vulnerability mitigation for the whole historic center

Full document

The PDF file did not load properly or your web browser does not support viewing PDF files. Download directly to your device: Download PDF document


[1] Rapone, D., Brando,G. Spacone, E. and De Matteis, G. “Seismic vulnerability assessment of historic centers: description of a predictive method and application to the case study of Scanno (Abruzzi, Italy),” Int. J. Archit. Herit., vol. 12, no. 7–8, pp. 1171–1195, 2018.

[2] Ferreira, T. M., Vicente, R., Silva, J. A. R. M., Varum, H. and Costa, A. “Seismic vulnerability assessment of historical urban centres: case study of the old city centre in Seixal, Portugal,” Bull. Earthq. Eng., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1753–1773, 2013.

[3] Tarque, N., Crowley, H., Pinho,R. and Varum, H. “Seismic capacity of adobe dwellings,” Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Earthq. Eng., no. September 2014, 2010.

[4] Illampas, R., Charmpis, D. C. and Ioannou, I. “Non-linear Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Adobe Masonry Structures with Various Roof Diaphragm Configurations,” pp. 475–487, 2015.

[5] Brando, G., Criber, E., De Matteis, G. The effects of L’aquila earthquake on the St. Gemma church in Goriano Sicoli: part II—fem analysis(2015) Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13 (12), pp. 3733-3748.

[6] Allahvirdizadeh,R., Oliveira, D. V. and Silva, R. A. “Modelling the seismic out - of - plane behaviour of rammed earth components modelling,” no. September, pp. 19–21, 2018.

[7] Cocco, G., D’Aloisio, A., Spacone, E. and Brando, G. “Seismic Vulnerability of Buildings in Historic Centers: From the ‘Urban’ to the ‘Aggregate’ Scale,” Front. Built Environ., vol. 5, no. June, pp. 1–14, 2019.

[8] Criber, E., Brando, G., De Matteis, G. The effects of L’Aquila earthquake on the St.Gemma church in Goriano Sicoli: part I—damage survey and kinematic analysis (2015) Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13 (12), pp. 3713-3732.

[9] Angles, V. Historia del Cusco, book II. Lima, 1983.

[10] Mazzanti, C. “Between natural disasters and social exclusion. The development of the historic center of Cusco (Peru),” in VIIIth CIRICE International Conference, 2018, pp.483–490.

[11] Vinuales, G. El espacio urbano en el Cusco colonial: uso y organizaciòn de las estructuras sim bòlicas. Lima, 2004.

[12] Samanez, R. “El terremoto que afectò a Cusco en 1950 y los aportes de George A. Kubler,”Arkinka, vol. 16, no. 204, pp. 91–95, 2012.

[13] Spacone, E., Brando, G., Peruch, M., Mazzanti, C., Sovero, K. and Tarque, N. “An extensive survey of the Historic Center of Cusco for its seismic vulnerability assessment,” RILEM Bookseries, vol. 18, 2019.

[14] Brando, G., Cocco, G., Mazzanti, C., Peruch, M., Spacone, E., Alfaro, C., Sovero, K. and Tarque, N. “Structural Survey and Empirical Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Dwellings in the Historical Centre of Cusco, Peru,” Int. J. Archit. Herit., pp. 1–29, 2019.

[15] Brando, G., De Matteis, G. and Spacone, E. “Predictive model for the seismic vulnerability assessment of small historic centres: Application to the inner Abruzzi Region in Italy,” Eng. Struct., vol. 153, no. December 2016, pp. 81–96, 2017.

[16] Grünthal, G. European Macroseismic Scale, vol. 15. Luxembourg, 1998.

[17] Margottini, C., Molin, D., Narcisi, B. and Serva, L. “Intensity vs acceleration: Italian data,” Proc. Work. Hist. Seism. Cent. Mediterr. Reg., pp. 213–226, 1987.

Back to Top

Document information

Published on 30/11/21
Submitted on 30/11/21

Volume Vulnerability and risk analysis, 2021
DOI: 10.23967/sahc.2021.316
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

Document Score


Views 15
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?