Electric vehicles (EVs) are recognized as promising options, not only for the decarbonization of urban areas and greening of the transportation sector, but also for increasing power system flexibility through demand-side management. Large-scale uncoordinated charging of EVs can impose negative impacts on the existing power system infrastructure regarding stability and security of power system operation. One solution to the severe grid overload issues derived from high penetration of EVs is to integrate local renewable power generation units as distributed generation units to the power system or to the charging infrastructure. To reduce the uncertainties associated with renewable power generation and load as well as to improve the process of tracking Pareto front in each time sequence, a predictive double-layer optimal power flow based on support vector regression and one-step prediction is presented in this study. The results demonstrate that, through the proposed control approach, the rate of battery degradation is reduced by lowering the number of cycles in which EVs contribute to the services that can be offered to the grid via EVs. Moreover, vehicle to grid services are found to be profitable for electricity providers but not for plug-in electric vehicle owners, with the existing battery technology and its normal degradation.
Document type: Article
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