Mechanical factors such as stresses and strains play a major role in the growth and remodelling of soft biological tissues. The main constituents of tissue undergo different processes reacting to mechanical stimulus. Thereby, the characterisation of growth and remodelling requires an accurate estimation of the stresses and strains of their main components. Many soft tissues can be considered as composite materials and can be analysed using an appropriate rule of mixtures. Particularly, arterial tissue can be modelled as an isotropic soft matrix reinforced with preferentially oriented collagen fibres. An inverse approach to obtain the mechanical characterisation of each main component is proposed in this work. The procedure is based on a rule of mixtures raised in a finite deformation framework and generalised to include kinematics and compatibility equations for serial–parallel behaviour. This methodology allows obtaining the stress–strain relationship of the components fitting experimental data.