Optimizing the way traffic is routed over networks has been of interest since we first started using computer networks to communicate and exchange information. Network technologies are constantly evolving and so do the underlying problems that need to be solved. This thesis focus on studying the recently proposed segment routing technology. In a traditional IP network, packets are routed using shorted paths according to weights that are configured on the network links. Segment routing offers a new way of routing traffic by allowing packets to do some detours on their way. Between these detours, traditional shortest path routing is used, making this technology have almost no usage overhead. We aim at providing a mathematical formalization of segment routing and showcase several of its use cases. We believe that such a formalization is going to help advance the research of the algorithmic aspects of segment routing by providing a solid mathematical foundation and notations which can serve as a starting point for others to research this topic. We leverage segment routing to solve traffic engineering problems, perform network monitoring and provide traffic duplication services that are robust to link failures. (FSA - Sciences de l'ingénieur) -- UCL, 2020
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