Panpimanmas, . Thawee
Cholangiocarcinoma is common in Thailand. There are many palliative treatments available for patients with unresectable tumor, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stents, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, or surgery. In cases in which ERCP has failed, we propose an alternative technique: the use of endoscopic ultrasound with fluoroscopy to perform hepaticogastrostomy for palliative drainage instead of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. A case series study was conducted between December 2005 and December 2009 of 10 patients (4 male and 6 female, average age: 57 years) who presented with severe jaundice caused by advanced cholangiocarcinoma, who were treated with this procedure after failure to drain by ERCP. We used an electronic convex curved linear-array fluoroscopy-guided echoendoscope to drain the left dilated intrahepatic duct to the stomach by metallic wallstent. We performed the procedure with the first six patients under general anesthesia and with the other four under conscious sedation. Follow-up liver function tests were done, and clinical symptoms and survival times were recorded. Hepaticogastrostomy was unsuccessful on the first two patients (success rate = 8/10, 80%), and effective drainage was obtained in only seven patients. Average total bilirubin reduction was 14.96 mg/dL (58.75%) and 18.13 mg/dL (71.20%) after 2 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively, with good quality of life. One patient was not effectively drained because of malposition of the stent. There were two patients whose stent migrated into the stomach, one needed a second session with a second wallstent, and the other needed a double pigtail stent inside the second wallstent. Follow-up survival rates were 32–194 days (average: 123 days). Endoscopic-ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy is safe and can be a good palliative option for advanced malignant biliary obstruction because it drains internally and is remote from the tumor site, promoting a long patency period of prosthesis and better quality of life.
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Published on 26/05/17Submitted on 26/05/17
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