The angle of repose does affect the behavior of granular materials and has a wide range of applications. The addition of a small amount of liquid can dramatically change the properties of granular media, leading to an increase in the repose angle. This change is mainly attributed to the capillary force resulting from the liquid bridge when the small amount of water was introduced. The capillary force as an attractive force increases the interaction between particles and becomes a dominant factor affecting the angle of repose because it is usually stronger than gravity. In this paper, a new discrete element method (DEM) model was developed in which the capillary force was calculated by the liquid bridge model based on toroidal approximation. The developed DEM model linked the microscopic liquid bridge volume to the macroscopic water content and it also considered the effect of liquid bridge breakage and formation on capillary force. The numerical model was first validated by comparing the experimental and numerical results. Then, the effects of surface tension, volume of the liquid bridge, and the contact angle are studied numerically. Finally, the empirical equation between water content and angle of repose is given under the present simulation conditions. This work will provide a deep understanding for the effect of capillary on the angle of repose.

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Published on 01/07/24

Accepted on 01/07/24

Submitted on 01/07/24

Volume Numerical Methods and Algorithms in Science and Engineering, 2024

DOI: 10.23967/wccm.2024.062

Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

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