Published in Int. Journal of Solids and Structures Vol. 14 (1), pp. 15-38, 1978
doi: 10.1016/0020-7683(78)90062-8


In the extrusion and forming of solids the plastic (or viscoplastic) deformations are so large that the elastic strain is negligible. The problem thus becomes one of incompressible viscous, non-Newtonian flow with prescribed boundary velocities. Various formulations of such problems (analogous to those of incompressible solid mechanics) are possible, and the paper investigates two basic processes.

Details of application to some examples of steady state flow in extrusion, drawing and rolling are given and transient free surface solutions are demonstrated for stretch forming and deep drawing. The formulation is shown to be capable of dealing with boundary friction and strain hardening. The coupling with thermal effects is demonstrated in the last section of the paper, and in addition, some practical problems of elastic spring-back which occur on the removal of load are discussed.

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