Summary

Aims

Taiwan implemented a comprehensive and universal National Health Insurance (NHI) program to cover all inhabitants. This study aimed to assess the medical utilization by liver cancer patients under the NHI.

Methods

This retrospective cross-sectional study used a sampled NHI research database, which contained 1 million beneficiaries. The claims of liver cancer patients in 2009 were analyzed. The other beneficiaries without liver cancer who used medical services in 2009 served as the control patients.

Results

Among the 2335 identified liver cancer patients, 2178 (93.3%) patients used outpatient services and 1193 (51.1%) patients used inpatient services. Liver cancer accounted for 1.8% of the NHI’s total cost. The cost per visit was United States dollars (US$)59.30 for outpatient care and US$2070.30 for inpatient care. The annual cost per patient was US$4746.60; US$1951.00 were for outpatient care and US$2795.60 for inpatient care. Patients who were female, in their 60s, had a lower income, and lived in southern Taiwan had a higher cost per patient (p  < 0.0001). Fees for consultation, treatment, and medical supplies (57.3%) accounted for the highest portion of outpatient costs, followed by drug fees (30.0%) and diagnosis fees (11.2%). Ward fees accounted for the highest portion of inpatient costs (19.0%), followed by drug fees (18.7%) and X-ray fees (14.9%). Private hospitals were visited more frequently than public hospitals. The cost per visit and cost per patient with liver cancer were 206.0% and 666.8%, respectively, of the cost of the control patients.

Conclusion

The cost of liver cancer care is substantial and varies by sex, age, income, and geographic distribution. It is critical to reduce the incidence of liver cancer and identify cost-effective treatment strategies.

Keywords

Cancer ; Cost ; Health insurance ; Liver ; Utilization

Introduction

Liver cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide [1] . Its incidence is increasing in Western countries, largely because of infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) [2] ; [3]  ;  [4] . The prognosis is often poor for patients with advanced symptomatic liver cancer. The burden of liver cancer has increased. However, studies of medical utilization by liver cancer patients are limited.

Taiwan is in a region of high incidence of liver cancer. Liver cancer is the second leading cause of death in Taiwan and caused 7809 deaths in 2007 [5] . The age standardized incidence of liver cancer is 28.1 cases per 100,000 people. Liver cancer accounted for 5.6% of deaths in the year 2007 in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance (NHI) is a comprehensive and universal health insurance program that has provided Western medicine and Chinese medicine since 1995 in Taiwan. More than 90% of Taiwanese inhabitants and medical institutes joined the NHI program. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provides claims and registration datasets for research. In this study, we used the NHIRD datasets to explore medical utilization and costs of liver cancer patients in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to access the annual medical costs of liver cancer in Taiwan and to determine the factors that were correlated with the medical costs. The hypothesis of this study was that the medical costs would be correlated with demographic factors.

Methods

Data sources

This is a retrospective cross-sectional study using Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005), which was obtained from the NHIRD. The LHID2005 contains all original claim data of 1 million beneficiaries enrolled in 2005 who were randomly sampled from the 2005 Registry for Beneficiaries of the NHIRD, which contained approximately 25.68 million individuals [6] . There was no significant difference in the distribution of age, gender, and insured amount between the patients in the LHID2005 and the original NHIRD. Claims of LHID2005 in 2009 were obtained for analysis. Until 2009, there were 985,628 patients who remained in this sample. The dropout rate was 1.44%. Therefore, this sample is very representative of the whole population. Data in the NHIRD that could be used to identify patients or care providers such as medical institutions and physicians were scrambled prior to being sent to the National Health Research Institutes for database construction and were further scrambled prior to being released to each researcher. All data were also de-identified. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Cheng Hsin General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan [CHGH-IRB-(298)].

Study sample

The patients of this study were identified from the LHIH2005 by diagnosis codes of liver cancer [International Classification of Diseases , 9th Revision, Clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 155 and 155.0-155.2] such as malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts [20] . To obtain demographic information, claim data were linked with files of registry for beneficiaries by the beneficiaries’ IDs and birthdays. The other beneficiaries without liver cancer who had used inpatient or outpatient services in 2009 served as the control patients.

Study variables

Dependent variable: cost

In this study, only insurance-covered services were taken into account. All costs were direct medical costs and presented in United States dollars [US$; US$1 = New Taiwan dollars (NT$) $33.05, based on the average exchange rate in 2009]. The detailed medical expenses in this study include the medical benefit claims and copayments. The patients’ copayment does not include registration fees. The categories of “outpatient cost” and “inpatient cost” were based on the definition by the Bureau of Health Insurance.

Independent variable: age

The age categories were < 50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and > 80 years.

Independent variable: income

Income was categorized as US$0, US$1–605, US$606–1210, and > US$1210. The calculation of income was based on the insured amount. Dependents were assumed to have no income.

Independent variable: insured region

Insured regions were divided into four regions, based on geographic distribution: northern Taiwan, central Taiwan, southern Taiwan, and eastern Taiwan and offshore islands. Northern Taiwan was defined as the region extending from Keelung to Miaoli, which included Yilan. Central Taiwan included Taichung, Changhua, and Nantou. Southern Taiwan included the regions extending from Yunglin to Pingtung. Eastern Taiwan and offshore islands included Hualien, Taitung, Penghu, Kinmen, and Mazu.

Independent variable: insured unit

Insured units were categorized by six groups, based on the definition of the Bureau of Health Insurance.

Statistical analysis

The database software ASIQ 12.5.7 (Sybase Inc, Dublin, CA, USA) was used for data linkage and processing. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The distribution and frequency of each category of variables were examined by the Kruskal–Wallis test or by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A value of p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

In 2009, 2335 patients with liver cancer were identified in this sample. A total of 2178 (93.3%) patients used outpatient services and 1193 (51.1%) patients used inpatient services. The control patients comprised 883,804 patients who had ever used inpatient or outpatient services in 2009.

Medical utilization

Among the patients, 2178 (93.3%) patients used outpatient services with 76,866 visits (average, 35.3 visits per user) and 1193 (51.1%) patients used inpatient services with 3153 visits (average 2.6 visits per user). The median frequency was 31 visits for outpatient users (Fig. 1 ) and two visits for inpatient users (Fig. 2 ).


Visit frequency of outpatient service use by liver cancer patients in 2009.


Figure 1.

Visit frequency of outpatient service use by liver cancer patients in 2009.


The visit frequency of inpatient service use by liver cancer patients in 2009.


Figure 2.

The visit frequency of inpatient service use by liver cancer patients in 2009.

The most frequently used outpatient service by visit was Western medicine (85.5%), followed by Chinese medicine (6.1%), dentistry (3.8%), emergent medicine (3.3%), and homecare (1.4%) (Table 1 ). The emergent services had the highest cost per visit of outpatient services. The most frequently used inpatient service by visits was ordinary care (94.0%), followed by other services (4.9%) and hospice care (0.7%) (Table 1 ). The hospice care had the lowest cost per visit of inpatient services.

Table 1. Medical utilization by liver cancer patients in 2009.
Characteristic Visit  % Cost (US$)  % Cost per visit (US$)
Outpatient Chinese medicine 4668 6.1 83,801 1.84 18.0
Dentistry 2889 3.8 89,886 1.97 31.1
Emergent medicine 2515 3.3 406,824 8.93 161.8
Homecare 1057 1.4 25,341 0.56 24.0
Western medicine 65,737 85.5 3,949,824 86.70 60.1
Total 76,866 100.0 4,555,675 100 59.3
Inpatient Ordinary care 2963 94.0 5,539,034 84.9 1869.4
Hospice care 23 0.7 14,546 0.2 632.4
Other servicesa 167 4.9 974,074 14.9 5832.8
Total 3153 100 6,527,655 100.0 2070.3

a. The data include case payment, special case (cost > NT$500,000.00; vascular stent or transplantation), payment demonstration program for breast cancer and hepatitis, tuberculosis program, and diet fees for low-income householders.

Medical cost for liver cancer patients and control patients

The cost for liver cancer patients and the control patients is presented in Table 2 . For liver cancer patients, the cost per visit was US$59.30 for outpatient services and US$2070.30 for inpatient services. The cost per user was US$2091.70 for outpatient services and US$5471.6 for inpatient services. The cost per patient was US$4746.60 with US$1951.00 used for outpatient services and US$2795.60 used for inpatient services.

Table 2. Comparison of the cost for control patients and liver cancer patients in 2009.
Characteristic Control patients a Liver cancer patients  %
No. of patients Total 881,469 2335 0.3
Outpatient 880,745 2178 0.2
Inpatient 74,629 1193 1.6
No. of visits Outpatient 14,668,653 76,866 0.5
Inpatient 128,426 3153 2.5
Total cost (US$) Total 627,506,394 11,083,329 1.8
Outpatient 421,993,697 4,555,675 1.1
Inpatient 205,512,697 6,527,655 3.2
Cost per visit (US$) Outpatient 28.8 59.3 206.0
Inpatient 1600.2 2070.3 129.4
Average cost per user (US$) b Outpatient 479.1 2091.7 436.6
Inpatient 2753.8 5471.6 198.7
Cost per patient (US$) c Total 711.9 4746.6 666.8
Outpatient 478.7 1951.0 407.5
Inpatient 233.1 2795.6 1199.1

a. All patients who ever used outpatient or inpatients services in this sample database.

b. Outpatient cost divided by outpatient service users; inpatient cost divided by the number of inpatient service users.

c. The cost divided by the number of all liver cancer patients or control participants.

Liver cancer accounted for 1.8% of the total costs, 1.1% of outpatient costs, and 3.2% of inpatient costs of the NHI. The average medical cost for liver cancer patients was higher than that of the control patients. The average costs per visit of the liver cancer patients was 206.0% of that of the control patients. The average cost per patient with liver cancer was 666.8% that of the control patients.

Cost component and service provider

Private hospitals were visited more frequently than public hospitals for outpatient and inpatient services (Table 3 ). The cost per visit was highest in public hospitals for outpatient services and highest in private hospitals for inpatient services. Fees for consultation, treatment, and medical supplies accounted for the highest portion of outpatient costs (57.3%), followed by drug fees (30.0%), and diagnosis fees (11.2%). Ward fees accounted for the highest portion of inpatient cost (19.0%), followed by drug fees (18.7%), and X-ray fees (14.9%).

Table 3. Cost and service providers for patients with liver cancer in 2009.
Characteristic Public hospitals Private hospitals Public clinics Private clinics Nursing institutions Total  %
Outpatient Visit 16,198 31,173 1313 28,088 94 76,866
Cost (US$) Drug fees 473,050 805,676 10,340 76,427 199 1,365,692 30.0
Consultation, treatment, and medical supplies 706,417 1,410,737 4295 480,414 6495 2,608,359 57.3
Diagnosis fees 102,246 192,992 9166 203,856 61 508,322 11.2
Dispensing service fees 20,871 39,484 912 12,032 4 73,303 1.6
Total 1,302,584 2,448,889 24,714 772,729 6758 4,555,675 100.0
Average cost per visit 80.4 78.6 18.8 27.5 71.9 59.3
Inpatient Visit 1075 2078 3153
Cost (US$) Diagnosis fees 118,076 237,067 355,143 5.4
Ward fees 406,677 832,322 1,238,999 19.0
Tube feeding fees 9991 24,333 34,324 0.5
Laboratory fees 234,987 445,798 680,785 10.4
X-ray fees 307,755 665,261 973,017 14.9
Therapeutic procedure fees 114,646 256,952 371,597 5.7
Surgical fees 99,382 279,293 378,675 5.8
Rehabilitation fees 5520 7160 12,679 0.2
Hemodialysis fees 27,577 41,042 68,619 1.1
Blood/plasma fees 112,569 245,457 358,027 5.5
Anesthesia fees 39,321 78,105 117,426 1.8
Special materials fees 157,023 418,265 575,289 8.8
Drug fees 336,760 885,711 1,222,471 18.7
Dispensing service fees 30,500 58,682 89,182 1.4
Psychiatric treatment fees 1752 3594 5347 0.1
Injection technology fees 14,847 31,227 46,074 0.7
Total 2,017,384 4,510,271 6,527,655 100.0
Average cost per visit (US$) 1876.6 2170.5 2070.3

Demographics

The correlation between cost and demographic characteristics is presented in Table 4 . A greater proportion of liver cancer patients was male, in their 50s, earned a monthly middle income (US$606.00–1210.00), lived in northern Taiwan, or were dependents. Patients had a higher cost per patient if they were female, in their 60s, earned no income (by insured amount), lived in southern Taiwan, and lived in low-income households (by insured unit) (p  < 0.0001). The correlation between cost and age was further analyzed ( Table 5 ). The patients in their 60s had a higher cost per visit for outpatient and inpatient services.

Table 4. The correlation between the cost and the demographic characteristics of liver cancer patients in 2009.
Characteristics No. of patients a  % Average cost per patient (US$) pb
Outpatient Inpatient Total
Gender < 0.0001
 Female 818 35.1 1964 3031 4995
 Male 1515 64.9 1930 2367 4298
Age (y) < 0.0001
 < 50 425 18.2 1322 1682 3003
 50s 575 24.6 1995 3111 5105
 60s 563 24.1 2223 3332 5555
 70s 543 23.3 2199 2725 4924
 > 80 227 9.7 1764 2946 4710
Income (US$/mo) c < 0.0001
 0 665 28.5 2301 2670 4972
 1–605 419 18.0 1869 2917 4786
 606–1210 991 42.5 1874 2926 4800
 > 1210 258 11.1 1489 2443 3932
Insured region < 0.0001
 Northern Taiwan 1057 45.3 1631 2365 3996
 Central Taiwan 358 15.3 2521 2681 5201
 Southern Taiwan 846 36.3 2127 3442 5569
 Eastern Taiwan and offshore islands 72 3.1 1791 2171 3962
Insured unit < 0.0001
 Employees of government, schools, enterprises, or institutions 423 18.1 1442 2492 3934
 Members of occupational unions and alien seamen 345 14.8 1907 3114 5020
 Farmers and fishermen 534 22.9 1975 2853 4828
 Low-income households 30 1.3 1722 3892 5614
 Veterans and other regional population 336 14.4 1934 2927 4861
 Dependents 665 28.5 2301 2670 4972

a. Two patients with missing demographic data were excluded.

b. The p value of the total cost, based on the Kruskal–Wallis test.

c. The calculation of income was based on the insured amount. Dependents were assumed to have no income.

Table 5. Correlation between cost (average cost per patient) and age of patients with liver cancer in 2009. (In US$).
Variable < 50 y 50–59 y 60–69 y 70–79 y > 80 y pa
Outpatient No. of patients 425 575 563 543 227
Visits 10,971 167,39 20,844 20,917 7359
Average visit per patient 25.8 29.1 37.0 38.5 32.4
Drug fees 402 576 737 627 476 0.0146
Consultation, treatment and medical supplies 722 1203 1210 1279 1027 0.0109
Diagnosis fees 177 190 240 253 226 0.0000
Dispensing service fees 20 26 35 40 35 0.0000
Total 1322 1995 2223 2199 1764 0.0001
Inpatient No. of patients 425 575 563 543 227
Visits 402 755 832 801 363
Average visit per patient 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.6
Diagnosis fees 98 148 174 158 198 0.0000
Ward fees 318 506 611 564 715 0.0000
Tube feeding fees 4 8 16 20 34 0.0016
Laboratory fees 173 306 337 299 350 0.0001
X-ray fees 275 453 482 445 365 0.0017
Therapeutic procedure fees 76 140 195 163 264 0.0009
Surgical fees 119 242 198 114 68 0.0035
Rehabilitation fees 1 2 14 3 6 0.2540
Hemodialysis fees 7 27 44 39 19 0.6229
Blood/plasma fees 87 190 200 124 138 0.0120
Anesthesia fees 43 63 60 41 29 0.0252
Special materials fees 137 240 302 293 218 0.0000
Drug fees 294 724 631 404 469 0.0279
Dispensing service fees 27 39 43 38 47 0.0016
Psychiatric treatment fees 8 3 0 0 0 0.0696
Injection technology fees 13 20 23 19 26 0.0648
Total 1682 3111 3332 2725 2946 0.0003

a. Based on the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

Discussion

Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world [1] . However, information on the economic burden of liver cancer is limited. This study is the first to evaluate the annual medical costs of liver cancer in Taiwan. Our data can serve as an important reference for health care providers and policymakers. Using the NHI data, our study assessed the medical utilization and costs of liver cancer patients who used medical services in 2009. The NHI in Taiwan is a comprehensive and universal health insurance program, which has provided Western medicine, Chinese medicine, dental care, and hospital care since 1995. Until 2009, the NHI covered more than 99% of residents and 92% of medical institutions in Taiwan. Therefore, the claim and registration datasets of the NHI are an ideal tool to investigate the utilization of medical services of the studied population.

In this study, we used sample datasets containing 1 million NHI beneficiaries. A total of 2335 liver cancer patients were identified. All claims of liver cancer patients were collected for analysis. Therefore, the study results were representative.

This study found that liver cancer patients accounted for 0.3% of medical service users, 0.2% of outpatient service users, and 1.6% of inpatient service users. However, liver cancer accounted for 1.8% of the total medical costs, 1.1% of outpatient costs, and 3.2% of inpatient costs for all beneficiaries. The average medical costs were higher for liver cancer patients than for the control patients. Liver cancer patients used more medical resources. Since 1984, there has been a successful universal vaccination plan for HBV for newborns in Taiwan. The average incidence of liver cancer per 100,000 children decreased from 0.7 in 1981–1986 to 0.36 in 1990–1994 in children 6–14 years old. However, the lower incidence of liver cancer in adults will be effected after 3–4 decades [7]  ;  [8] . Liver cancer remains a heavy burden on the health system in Taiwan. Therefore, the development of cost-effective treatment strategies for liver cancer is critical to reduce the financial burden in Taiwan.

It is difficult to compare the cost in different studies because of heterogeneity across studies in the settings, populations studied, measurement of costs, and study methods. Lang et al [9] conducted a claim data analysis from a medical center in Taiwan and found that the 10-year lifetime average cost of patients with liver cancer was NT$418,554.00 [New Taiwan dollars (NT$) = US $12,683.00]. The Huang study [10] used the NHI data from 1996 to 2002 with ICD-9 code 155. For all incident cases of liver cancer in 1997, the average 5-year cumulated cost was NT$219,398.00 (US $6648.00).

The prognosis of liver cancer is poor. The 1-year and 5-year overall survival rate of liver cancer in Taiwan is 48.98% and 19.72%, respectively [11] . In this study, the average cost per patient was US$4746.60 in 2009. Lang et al [12] found the overall per patient cost of liver cancer was US$32,907.00 in the United States of America (USA) with US$29,354.00 spent on health care cost and US$3553.00 spent on the value of lost productivity. Our study found that the annual overall per patient cost of liver cancer was US$4746.60 in Taiwan. The per patient monthly cost was US$7845.00 in the USA and US$395.60 in Taiwan. The cost of liver cancer is much lower in Taiwan than in the USA; however, the 5-year survival rate of liver cancer is better in Taiwan than in the USA [11]  ;  [13] . Taiwan’s medical system provided efficiency and quality medical services. Taiwans NHI system has attracted attention from around the world for its many achievements such as its universality, ability to care for socially and economically disadvantaged groups, and a wide range of coverage and consistent level of quality. Physician visits per person per year was 13.9 in Taiwan, 3.8 in the USA, 7.5 in Germany, and five in the United Kingdom [14] . The average life expectancy and infant mortality rate in Taiwan were compatible with those in Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The utilization of medical services increased, although the health expenditure remained at 6.1% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in Taiwan [14] . This finding is in sharp contrast with the USA (16% of the GDP) and lower than that of most OECD countries [15] .

The correlation was analyzed between cost and medical utilization, demographics, and service providers. The most frequently used outpatient services by visits was Western medicine (85.5%), followed by Chinese medicine (6.1%). Our previous study [16] in 2007 found that 3.9% patients with liver cancer (with diagnosis codes 155 and 155.0) used cancer-related outpatient services of Chinese medicine (CM) at least once. Chinese medicine accounted for 2.6% visits and 0.7% expenditure of ambulatory services for liver cancer. Western medicine is the mainstream. In liver cancer care, CM has more a complementary role than an alternative role. Our results also demonstrated that hospice care had the lowest average cost per inpatient service visit. This is consistent with a previous study in Taiwan [17] .

Our study demonstrated that the cost of liver cancer care to the NHI varied by sex, age, income, and geographic distribution. A higher proportion of liver cancer patients were male, in their 50s, earned a monthly middle income (US$606–US$1210), and lived in northern Taiwan, or were dependents. However, patients who were female, in their 60s, earned no income (by the insured amount), lived in southern Taiwan, or were from low-income households (by insured unit) had a higher average cost per patient (p  < 0.0001). The role of HBV and HCV in liver cancer in Taiwan differs in different age groups. Hepatitis B virus was more frequent in young liver cancer patients, and HCV was more frequent in elderly liver cancer patients in Taiwan [18] . Chen et al [19] found that HCV infection was very common in some villages and townships in southern Taiwan [19] . Our study also found that patients in their 60s had a higher cost per visit for outpatient and inpatient services.

Several limitations of this study must be acknowledged. (1) This is a claim-based study; only insurance-covered services and medications were taken into account. Out-of-pocket herbal medicine and noncontracted medical institutes were not included. This may underestimate the cost. (2) The cost was the points that the contracted medical institutions declared and was not corrected for the point value by global budget payment and deduction by NHI. The NHI paid medical fees to health care providers on a fee-for-service basis. The global budget payment scheme was promoted from dental services to CM, followed by Western medicine primary care, and finally hospitals. The system was universally implemented in all medical care institutions by July 2002. The point value by global budget payment system is floating. In 2009, one point value was equal to NT$0.8872–1.0002. Furthermore, the service costs to be deducted by NHI were not adjusted. Adjusting the point value and deduction would decrease the cost by approximately 10%. (3) The study population was selected by the diagnosis codes. The number of liver cancer patients may be overestimated because of overcoding. (4) The NHIRD is primarily for administrative purposes. The clinical characteristics such as staging and biochemical data were unavailable. The disease severity and survival could not be evaluated in this study. The cost effectiveness could not be analyzed. (5) This study included all medical services for analysis, regardless of their relevance to the liver cancers. Among the services that liver cancer patients utilized, some services were not relevant to the liver cancer. Some services were relevant to the liver cancer. Some services were not directly relevant to the liver cancers, but may be contributed to or accounted for by the disease. This may overestimate the cost.

This study was designed to explore the economic burden of liver cancer in Taiwan. The methods of treatment, disease severity, and type of hospital influence the differences in the health care costs between patients or between geographical regions. In a cross-sectional study, this sample is not well reflective of the whole course of liver cancer. Therefore, the aforementioned factors were not analyzed. In the future, a longitudinal study is warranted to explore these important factors.

In conclusion, liver cancer is a heavy burden on the health service system in Taiwan. Liver cancer patients used more medical resources than the other people. The cost of liver cancer care is substantial and varies by sex, age, income, and geographic distribution. Based on the findings of the study, it is critical to reduce the incidence of liver cancer and identify cost-effective treatment strategies.

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This study is based in part on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database provided by the Bureau of National Health Insurance, the Department of Health, and managed by the National Health Research Institutes. The interpretations and conclusions contained in this paper do not represent those of the Bureau of National Health Insurance, Department of Health, or National Health Research Institutes. This work was supported by Cheng Hsin General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan (grant number 102-35 ).

References

  1. [1] D.M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, P. Pisani; Global cancer statistics, 2002; CA Cancer J Clin, 55 (2005), pp. 74–108
  2. [2] A.S. Lok, L.B. Seeff, T.R. Morgan, A.M. di Bisceglie, R.K. Sterling, T.M. Curto, HALT-C Trial Group, et al.; Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and associated risk factors in hepatitis C-related advanced liver disease; Gastroenterology, 136 (2009), pp. 138–148
  3. [3] K.A. McGlynn, R.E. Tarone, H.B. El-Serag; A comparison of trends in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15 (2006), pp. 1198–1203
  4. [4] S.F. Altekruse, K.A. McGlynn, M.E. Reichman; Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States from 1975 to 2005; J Clin Oncol, 27 (2009), pp. 1485–1491
  5. [5] Bureau of Health Promotion. Department of Health; 2009 Annual report; Bureau of Health Promotion, Taipei, Taiwan (2009)
  6. [6] National Health Insurance Research Database (2014) Available at: http://nhird.nhri.org.tw/en/index.htm [accessed 09.02.14]
  7. [7] J.H. Kao, D.S. Chen; Global control of hepatitis B virus infection; Lancet Infect Dis, 2 (2002), pp. 395–403
  8. [8] J.H. Kao, D.S. Chen; Changing disease burden of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Far East and Southeast Asia; Liver Int, 25 (2005), pp. 696–703
  9. [9] H.C. Lang, J.C. Wu, S.H. Yen, C.F. Lan, S.L. Wu; The lifetime cost of hepatocellular carcinoma: a claims data analysis from a medical centre in Taiwan; Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 6 (2008), pp. 55–65
  10. [10] C.F. Huang; Medical cost and treatment outcome related factors for HCC; Institute of Health Care Management, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung (2005), p. 97
  11. [11] Bureau of Health Promotion. Department of Health. Executive Yuan; Cancer registry annual report, 2007; Bureau of Health Promotion, Taipei, Taiwan (2010)
  12. [12] K. Lang, N. Danchenko, K. Gondek, S. Shah, D. Thompson; The burden of illness associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States; J Hepatol, 50 (2009), pp. 89–99
  13. [13] A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, et al.; Cancer statistics, 2008; CA Cancer J Clin, 58 (2008), pp. 71–96
  14. [14] Bureau of National Health Insurance; National Health Insurance in Taiwan 2010; Bureau of Health Promotion, Taipei, Taiwan (2010)
  15. [15] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); OECD health data 2009 Statistics and indicators for 30 countries  ; OECD, Paris, France (2009)
  16. [16] Y.H. Lin, J.H. Chiu; Use of Chinese medicine among patients with liver cancer in Taiwan; J Altern Complement Med (New York, NY), 16 (2010), pp. 527–528
  17. [17] W.Y. Lin, T.Y. Chiu, H.S. Hsu, L.E. Davidson, T. Lin, K.C. Cheng, et al.; Medical expenditure and family satisfaction between hospice and general care in terminal cancer patients in Taiwan; J Formos Med Assoc [Taiwan Yi Zhi], 108 (2009), pp. 794–802
  18. [18] D.S. Chen; Hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan; Hepatol Res, 37 (Suppl. 2) (2007), pp. S101–S105
  19. [19] D.S. Chen; Viral hepatitis in East Asia; J Formos Med Assoc [Taiwan Yi Zhi], 95 (1996), pp. 6–12
  20. [20] U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; International classification of diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM); (2014) Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd9cm.htm [accessed 09.02.14]
Back to Top

Document information

Published on 15/05/17
Submitted on 15/05/17

Licence: Other

Document Score

0

Views 7
Recommendations 0

Share this document

Keywords

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?