Abstract

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a systematic process designed to identify and predict the potential impacts of human activity on the biophysical and human environment. It also functions as an environmental management tool to identify measures to avoid, mitigate or compensate for those effects. EIA is intended to be an iterative process to follow-up to projects postimplementation to determine actual environmental outcomes, interpret and communicate information about those outcomes and investigate opportunities for improved project environmental performance. Originating from the United States’ National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, EIA is now amongst the most successful and widely practiced environmental management tools in the world. Key Concepts: EIA is an aid to decision making through which concerns about the potential environmental consequences of proposed projects are assessed before those projects become a reality. Screening in EIA ensures that assessments are done when needed and not done when not needed. Scope is essential to good EIA and the goal is to focus on a select set of environmental components that are deemed important from scientific, public or regulatory perspectives and are likely to be adversely affected by the project. The underlying intent of EIA is to allow project proponents, managers and decision makers to enhance the benefits of proposed development projects and to mitigate potentially adverse impacts to the point of acceptability. EIA must be applied early in the development planning processes if it is to be influential in project design and decision making. Information gained in EIA follow-up studies, after the project is implemented, provides feedback to improve predictions and mitigation and management programmes, and an opportunity to learn for subsequent project proposals. Keywords: environmental impact assessment; baseline studies; impact prediction; mitigation and management of impacts; cumulative environmental effects; follow-up studie


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DOIS: 10.1002/9781118900116.ch11 10.1201/noe0849321573.ch2 10.1016/0143-1471(80)90099-9 10.1016/s0964-5691(98)00019-2 10.1002/9780470758519.ch9 10.1007/978-981-10-3605-7_4 10.2307/1936879 10.1201/b10717 10.4135/9781412973816.n56 10.1002/0471722022 10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0178 10.1057/jors.1984.116 10.4337/9781849807265.00020 10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_890 10.1016/0301-4207(83)90006-5 10.1007/978-94-011-2528-4 10.1016/b978-0-08-021948-6.50025-x 10.1080/07349165.1982.9725447 10.2307/2581810 10.2524/jtappij.54.1329 10.1007/978-3-642-20617-7_6606 10.4324/9780203409978 10.1201/9781584888598.ch2 10.1002/0471238961.envilawr.a01 10.1007/978-3-662-53120-4_6606 10.1201/9780429506239-8 10.1007/978-3-319-58418-8_13 10.4324/9781315096056-7 10.1007/978-3-642-28036-8_386 10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/e1581 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003253.pub2 10.1057/9780230524460_25 10.4324/9780429035715-9 10.1016/0048-9697(80)90092-3 10.1016/s0378-777x(83)80074-2 10.1007/978-3-540-88256-5_17 10.2134/jeq2004.0797 10.1016/0002-1571(81)90111-4 10.1007/978-3-642-35950-7_6606-4 10.4324/9781315838953 10.4337/9781784714765.00009 10.1016/0264-8377(96)84064-6

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Published on 01/01/1997

Volume 1997, 1997
DOI: 10.1002/9781118900116.ch11
Licence: Other

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