The main objective of this article is to propose a simplified methodology to assess the expected seismic damage in reinforced concrete buildings from a probabilistic point of view by using Monte Carlo simulation. In order to do so, the seismic behaviour of the building was studied by using random capacity obtained by considering the mechanical properties of the materials as random variables. From the capacity curves, the damage states and fragility curves can be obtained, and curves describing the expected seismic damage to the structure as a function of a seismic hazard characteristic can be developed. The latter can be calculated using the capacity spectrum and the demand spectrum according to the methodology proposed by the Risk-UE project. In order to define the seismic demand as a random variable, a set of real accelerograms were obtained from European and Spanish databases in such a way that the mean of their elastic response spectra was similar to an elastic response spectrum selected from Eurocode 8. In order to combine the uncertainties associated with the seismic action and the mechanical properties of materials, two procedures are considered to obtain functions relating the peak ground acceleration to the maximum spectral displacements. The first method is based on a series of non-linear dynamic analyses, while the second is based on the well-known ATC-40 procedure called equal displacement approximation. After applying both procedures, the probability density functions of the maximum displacement at the roof of the building are gathered and compared. The expected structural damage is finally obtained by replacing the spectral displacement calculated using ATC-40
and the incremental dynamic procedure. In the damage functions, the results obtained from incremental static and dynamic analyses are compared and discussed from a probabilistic point of view.