The city of Groningen, Netherlands, attracted much attention in the 1970s due to its fundamentally new traffic circulation scheme (VCP) that favored public transport, bicycles, and pedestrians above cars. The inner city was divided into 4 sectors and through traffic was made impossible by traffic restriction. Moving by car from one sector to another is possible only via the ring road around the inner city. In this paper, it is explained how this fundamental change could happen. This was a most interesting process as the suspicious public had to be convinced by municipal authorities without having references to successful examples elsewhere. It is illustrated that the most determining factor for success was the availability of political power to neglect opposing views. Both expert involvement and citizen participation were reduced to a minimum level.

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Published on 01/01/2004

Volume 2004, 2004
DOI: 10.2495/ut040291
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

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