Forging tools that are subject to high thermo-mechanical loads require a correspondingly high heat resistance, hardness and ductility to prevent undesirable failure patterns due to wear, plastic deformation and crack formation. These properties are mainly required in the layer of the tool engraving close to the surface, as this area is exposed to the highest loads due to the contact with the hot workpiece. With the heat transfer from the workpiece to the tool, a cyclic tempering process of the tool material often occurs in this area, resulting in a decrease in wear resistance. Diffusion treatments of the tool surface, such as additional nitriding, cannot provide sufficient protection in thermally highly stressed tool areas, as the heat-affected zone in these areas extends beyond the surface modification. As a result, a tempered layer forms under the nitrided layer, on which it can slide off or break as a result of the high process loads and the wear protection is lost. The use of nickel-based alloys promises an improvement in service life due to their high specific heat. However, these alloys are much more expensive than hot-work tool steels and are more difficult to machine, which has a negative effect on the economic use as a die material. Furthermore, nickel-based alloys do not have the high strength of steel that is often required in the base material that is subject to low thermal loads. To reduce the material usage of nickel-based alloys, but to fully take advantage of their positive properties, the suitability of the Tailored Forming concept in thermo-mechanically highly stressed areas were investigated within the scope of this research. For this reason, hybrid forging tool inserts with a base material of hot-work tool steel and a protective nickel-based alloy surface layer were produced. The hybrid tools are manufactured through a process combination of rotatory friction welding and die forging. The surface enlargement as a result of the forming process is to be used specifically to protect the relevant tool areas with a layer of nickel-based alloy and at the same time minimize the use of the expensive material. The effects of the thermo mechanical treatments occurring in the joining zone were examined and the potential of the technology was investigated

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Published on 09/11/23
Submitted on 09/11/23

DOI: 10.23967/c.composite.2023.013
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

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