In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the construction sector is increasingly using clinker-reduced concretes. Concrete with high amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) show increased durability performance in certain environmental conditions compared to concrete with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC). However, in laboratory studies, concrete with GGBFS show an increased initial scaling rate in comparison with OPC concrete. Changing weather conditions and high relative humidities > 70 % in field lead to less carbonation and thus, to a better freeze-thaw deicing salt resistance (FTDSR). Therefore, the current lab performance test penalizes GGBFS concrete. This contribution studied the impact of carbonation and intermittent dry periods on FTDSR of GGBFS concrete compared to that of OPC concrete. It could be shown that for concrete with OPC, intermittent dry periods lead to an accumulation of salt in the near surface, which causes a reduction of the scaling. GGBFS concrete, on the other hand, shows an opposite behavior: carbonation causes an increase in scaling after the dry period. GGBFS concrete samples with CO2-free pre-storage show the lowest scaling of all samples investigated. A better simulation of the behavior of GGBFS concrete could lead to economical as well as optimized solutions for the local environment conditions and enable the large-scale use of more environmentally-friendly concretes. Therefore, by taking the effect of carbonation and intermittent dry periods into account in a simple engineering model, the prediction of concrete scaling under consideration of real climatic conditions is possible in an eco-efficient manner.
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