This work concerns structural and sensitivity analysis of carpentry joints used in historic wooden buildings in south-eastern Poland and western Ukraine. These are primarily sacred buildings and the types of joints characteristic for this region are saddle notch and dovetail joints. Thus, in the study the authors focus on these types of corner log joints. Numerical models of the joints are defined and finite element simulations of their statics are carried out. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to describe how the uncertainty of material properties including humidity of some structural members, caused during potential repairs, affect the structural behaviour of the whole connection. This represents the situation when some degraded logs are exchanged into new wood combining old, and often damp, wood with new and dry logs. A non-intrusive probabilistic approach to the sensitivity analysis is applied and regression-based Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansion method is used to propagate uncertainties.

Full document

The PDF file did not load properly or your web browser does not support viewing PDF files. Download directly to your device: Download PDF document


[1] I. Lubowiecka, T. Zybała, G. Bukal, M. Krajewski, M. Kujawa, and P. Kłosowski, On the Current State of Dovetail Wall-corner Joints in Wooden Greek Catholic Churches in Polish Subcarpathia with Structural and Sensitivity Analyses, Int. J. Archit. Herit. (2019) 00:1–18.

[2] J. R. Drobiec Łukasz, Pająk Zbigniew, Repair problems of the wooden structure of churches, J. Herit. Conserv. ( 2018) 53:31–44.

[3] H. Cruz et al., Guidelines for On-Site Assessment of Historic Timber Structures Guidelines for On-Site Assessment of Historic Timber Structures, Int. J. Archit. Herit. (2015) 9:277–289.

[4] J. Milch, J. Tippner, V. Sebera, J. Kunecký, M. Kloiber, and M. Navrátil, The numerical assessment of a full-scale historical truss structure reconstructed with use of traditional all-wooden joints, J. Cult. Herit. (2016) 21:759–766.

[5] I. Bergamasco, A. Gesualdo, A. Iannuzzo, and M. Monaco, An integrated approach to the conservation of the roofing structures in the Pompeian Domus, J. Cult. Herit. (2018) 31:141–151.

[6] M. J. Morales-Conde and J. S. Machado, Evaluation of cross-sectional variation of timber bending modulus of elasticity by stress waves, Constr. Build. Mater. (2017) 134:617–625.

[7] J. Hermida, M. Cabaleiro, B. Riveiro, and J. C. Caamaño, Two-dimensional models of variable inertia from LiDAR data for structural analysis of timber trusses, Constr. Build. Mater. (2020) 231:117072.

[8] P. B. Lourenço, H. S. Sousa, R. D. Brites, and L. C. Neves, In situ measured cross section geometry of old timber structures and its influence on structural safety, Mater. Struct. Constr. (2013) 46:1193–1208.

[9] J. S. Machado, F. Pereira, and T. Quilhó, Assessment of old timber members: Importance of wood species identification and direct tensile test information, Constr. Build. Mater. (2019) 207:651–660.

[10] M. Aydın and T. Yılmaz Aydın, Moisture dependent elastic properties of naturally aged black pine wood, Constr. Build. Mater. (2020) 262:120752.

[11] T. Zybała, K. Szepietowska, G. Bukal, and I. Lubowiecka, Portico farmhouses of the Vistula Delta: architecture, current state and finite element modelling of timber roof truss under material and cross-section uncertainty, Int. J. Archit. Herit. (2021), in press.

[12] J. Köhler, J. D. Sørensen, and M. H. Faber, Probabilistic modeling of timber structures, Struct. Saf. (2007) 29:255–267.

[13] H. S. Sousa and L. C. Neves, Reliability-based design of interventions in deteriorated timber structures, Int. J. Archit. Herit. (2018) 12:507–515.

[14] P. O. Hristov, F. A. DiazDelaO, E. I. Saavedra Flores, C. F. Guzmán, and U. Farooq, Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to understand the influence of micromechanical properties of wood on its macroscopic response, Compos. Struct. (2017) 181:229–239.

[15] P. Klosowski, I. Lubowiecka, A. Pestka, and K. Szepietowska, Historical carpentry corner log joints-Numerical analysis within stochastic framework, Eng. Struct. (2018) 176:64–73.

[16] J. Jasieńko, T. Nowak, and A. Karolak, Historyczne złącza ciesielskie. (Historical carpentry joints), J. Herit. Conserv. (2014) 40:58–82.

[17] B. Sudret, Global sensitivity analysis using polynomial chaos expansions, Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. (2008) 93:964–979.

[18] P. Kłosowski, A. Pestka, M. Krajewski, and I. Lubowiecka, Experimental and computational study on mechanical behaviour of carpentry corner log joints, Eng. Struct. (2020) 213:110515.

[19] D. W. Green, J. E. Winandy, and D. E. Kretschmann, Wood handbook – Wood as an Engineering Material. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison (1999).

[20] K. Szepietowska, B. Magnain, I. Lubowiecka, and E. Florentin, Sensitivity analysis based on non-intrusive regression-based polynomial chaos expansion for surgical mesh modelling, Struct. Multidiscip. Optim. (2018) 57:1391–1409.

[21] I. M. Sobol′, Global sensitivity indices for nonlinear mathematical models and their Monte Carlo estimates, Math. Comput. Simul. (2001) 55:271–280.

[22] P. Grossi, T. Sartori, I. Giongo, and R. Tomasi, Analysis of timber log-house construction system via experimental testing and analytical modelling, Constr. Build. Mater. (2016) 102:1127–1144.

[23] W. M. McKenzie and H. Karpovich, The frictional behaviour of wood, Wood Sci. Technol. (1968) 2:139–152.

[24] M. Xu, L. Li, M. Wang, and B. Luo, Effects of Surface Roughness and Wood Grain on the Friction Coefficient of Wooden Materials for Wood-Wood Frictional Pair, Tribol. Trans. (2014) 57:871–878.

Back to Top

Document information

Published on 30/11/21
Submitted on 30/11/21

Volume Numerical modeling and structural analysis, 2021
DOI: 10.23967/sahc.2021.243
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

Document Score


Views 10
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?