This paper describes how the development of the great cities in Romania, especially the capital of Bucharest, and the dramatic rise in the number of cars has contributed to the pollution of these cities and resulted in horrific urban traffic, particularly during the morning and evening rush hours. To provide alternative transportation in Bucharest and the surrounding areas, Urban Transport Administration of Bucharest (RATB) uses 300 km of tram lines with a park of 500 tram wagons, 18 trolley lines with a 485 km network and a park of 300 trolleys, the bus transport system with a 2,900 km network and a park of 1,300 buses, 3 Light Rail (LR) lines and 4 subway lines. During rush hour, the tram and trolley lines are obstructed by cars most of the time, so the average transport speed is 6–9 km/h for trolleys and 8–10 km/h for trams. The travel time for cars is around 220,000 vehicles/hour, 18,000 vehicles/hour for cabs, and 854,000 passengers/hour for urban transportation with electrical vehicles and buses. The impact on the environment can be measured in noise levels, which for 2007 were estimated at 62.8 dB and very high polluting car emissions. This paper will examine the decision factors and the planning concerns to provide a more efficient urban transport in Bucharest and other great cities in Romania, especially with electric vehicles. The paper proposes a methodology to optimize the selection mode and the track design for LR, using existing tram lines with the necessary additions, the construction of new subway lines for the busy areas and the continuous development of the tram and trolley urban transportation network.
The different versions of the original document can be found in: