Electric vehicles (EV) can be considered as energy storage with availability, energy and capacity constraints that can provide flexibility to the power system in the form of balancing products when aggregated. In this paper, we develop a two-stage stochastic optimization problem that maximizes the profit of a risk-averse EV aggregator for bids on the day ahead in both energy and Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) markets. Unidirectional charging is examined, while we take into account uncertainty from prices and vehicle availability. Case studies are carried out in different Nordic bidding areas based on historical EV charging data. We identify a strong temporal alignment of EV availability and high FCR-N prices. Results show that consumption is shifted largely towards early hours of the morning. When compared to a reference cost of charging case, up to 50% of the cost of charging can be recovered in Norway, and 100% in Sweden.

QC 20190710. QC 20191203

Original document

The different versions of the original document can be found in:


Back to Top

Document information

Published on 01/01/2019

Volume 2019, 2019
DOI: 10.1109/ptc.2019.8810937
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

Document Score


Views 0
Recommendations 0

Share this document

claim authorship

Are you one of the authors of this document?