Technology is changing the way we move and reshaping cities and society. Shared and on-demand mobility represent notable transportation shifts in the 21st century. In recent years, mobility on demand (MOD)âwhere consumers access mobility, goods, and services on-demand by dispatching shared modes, courier services, public transport, and other innovative strategiesâhas grown rapidly due to technological advancements; changing consumer preferences; and a range of economic, environmental, and social factors. New attitudes toward sharing, MOD, and mobility as a service (MaaS) are changing traveler behavior and creating new opportunities and challenges for public transportation. This chapter discusses similarities and differences between the evolving concepts of MaaS and MOD. Next, it characterizes the range of existing public transit and MOD service models and enabling partnerships. The chapter also explores emerging trends impacting public transportation. While vehicle automation could result in greater public transit competition in the future, it could also foster new opportunities for transit enhancements (e.g., microtransit services, first- and last-mile connections, reduced operating costs). The chapter concludes with a discussion of how MOD/MaaS partnerships and automation could enable the public transit industry to reinvent itself, making it more attractive and competitive with private vehicle ownership and use.
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