Electric vehicles require sufficient public charging infrastructure. This in turn necessitates detailed information on charging demand. In this paper we present a four-step approach to estimating public charging demand of electric vehicles. Previous methods are limited in their ability to provide differentiated results and adapt to future developments. Therefore, we account for user groups (private, carsharing, commercial), technical developments (vehicles, infrastructure), infrastructure availability, and carsharing development (operational area, business models, autonomous vehicles). Our approach also considers the interactions between these factors and allows for scenario analysis yielding the quantity and spatial distribution of public charging demand. We demonstrate our approach for Berlin, Germany. We find that the majority of public charging demand results from carsharing. This demand is concentrated in the city center, even when carsharing is available citywide. Public charging demand for commercial users is relatively low and located outside the city center. For private users, public charging demand shifts to the city center with an increasing market penetration of electric vehicles and technological advancements (increased range, charging speed). Public demand from private users increases dramatically when private infrastructure is absent. Finally, public charging demand shifts to the city center when private users do not have private infrastructure.
Document type: Article
The different versions of the original document can be found in:
Are you one of the authors of this document?