Smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) could potentially facilitate easing network imbalance and grid over-loading issues that are expected to emerge due to the increase in sustainable energy alternatives in the near future. It has been shown that smart charging is technically possible, however, if there are no positive business cases, it is unlikely to succeed. One of the possible business cases is supplying energy in ancillary services markets. This paper investigates this business case for the Dutch ancillary service markets by determining the investment and operational costs of smart charging a pool of EVs and creating a market participation model that combines EV charging data with market data to calculate the potential profit.
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