Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) refers to a technology that could help make the electricity grid more effective, reduce the cost of ownership of electric vehicles (EVs), and help integrate intermittent renewable energy sources. However, despite these advantages, implementation and even knowledge of the technology is not widespread. In order to explore why, we ask the question: what are the barriers that V2G currently faces? To provide an answer, the authors conducted 227 semi-structured interviews with transportation and electricity experts from 201 institutions across seventeen cities within a market currently experimenting with electric mobility and V2G, the Nordic region. Results show that there is an extensive range of barriers facing V2G, with experts suggesting in total 35 categories of barriers. While the literature espouses substantial benefits of V2G, the experts interviewed generally displayed skepticism of the benefits and necessity of V2G in the Nordics. We categorized the top nine discussed barriers into four clusters. These clusters focused on the experts’ skepticism of the benefits of V2G, consumer acceptance, economic viability, and regulatory structure for V2G participation. We conclude the paper with policy implications and suggestions for future research.
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