Published in Geomorphology, Vol. 381, pp. 107666, 2021
Cliff recession poses a significant threat to the built environment, transportation infrastructure and land use. In this paper, a novel computational framework called the Nodal-integration based Particle Finite Element Method (N-PFEM) is developed for modelling the cliff recession resulting from weathering-induced landslides. The N-PFEM combines the nodal-integration technique with the PFEM in second-order cone programming and thus requires no variable mapping operation, which is essential in the classical PFEM for modelling history-dependent materials, for modelling large deformation problems such as landslides in cliff recession processes. To verify the developed N-PFEM, a series of benchmarks have been simulated including the cliff recession under both the weathering-limited and transport-limited conditions. Simulation results from the N-PFEM are validated in detail to these from the limit analysis method, well established geomorphologic models and the discrete element method. Additionally, measures for preventing cliff recession such as the construction of retaining wall structures are also investigated using the N-PFEM.