Background: sexually transmitted diseases are infections that are spread from one person to another through non-responsible sexual contact. Aim: to analyze the relationship between knowledge and the risk of sexually transmitted diseases in high school students. Methods: a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out in an educational unit in the city of Ambato, province of Tungurahua-Ecuador, with a sample of 250 high school students. The data collection technique was a survey aimed at finding out sociodemographic information, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and sexual practices. Results: 42.8% of the people with a high risk exposure have a good level of knowledge, and 9.6% have a fair level of knowledge; whereas, in the population with a low risk level, 31.2% have a fair level of knowledge and 16.4% have a good level of knowledge. Conclusion: knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases is not always sufficient to influence the sexual behaviors of high school students.
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