Ancient Caesarea has founded in the years 25-10 BC and named after Emperor Augustus. Throughout history, from the early Roman until the Byzantine period, Caesarea was a major city and one of the largest and most important port cities in the Mediterranean. During the Byzantine period, the city encompassed an area three times larger than that delimited by the Herodian wall and became an important center of Christianity. The monumental stairs led to the Byzantine Octagonal Church built upon giant arch above the remains of the enormous Roman stairs of Augustus temple. Stairs led a large number of people from the vast harbor, to the Temple platform. The Byzantine arch located 17 meters from the ancient quay, is 8 meters width and 4-meter long, built with specific technology from local sandstone named Kurkar. The arch fall after the Byzantine period and the staircases severely damaged due to the long exposure of almost 1500 years and environmental conditions such as capillary rise, daily winds carrying sand, high temperature, moisture, salts, and deliberate destruction, for instance, stones robber and collapse parts from the wall. The characteristics of the Kurkar with sustained deterioration and this environmental condition have led to different conservation problems, at various levels of severity erosion, the disintegration in both bonding materials and stones. The conservation measures' purpose is to stop the ongoing weathering process and prevent a deterioration state of the staircases, to restore the arch and stabilize the structure of the stairs to carry 48 tons of the restore arch. The findings of the project show that a suitable solution to ensure effective and sustainable protection of complicated staircases structure from destruction and various weathering condition to carry new massive arch depends on understanding the ancient application of building technologies and techniques, the use of original bonding material, integrated monitoring, and ongoing maintenance.

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Published on 30/11/21
Submitted on 30/11/21

Volume Interdisciplinary projects and case studies, 2021
DOI: 10.23967/sahc.2021.305
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

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