Published in Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 166-179, 2019
Residual stresses and distortion in Additive Manufactured (AM) parts are two key obstacles which seriously hinder the wide application of this technology. Nowadays, understanding the thermomechanical behavior induced by the AM process is still a complex task which must take into account the effects of both the process and the material parameters, the microstructure evolution as well as the pre-heating strategy. One of the challenges of this work is to increase the complexity of the geometries used to study the thermomechanical behavior induced by the AM process. The reference geometries are a rectangular and a S-shaped structures made of 44-layers each. The samples have been fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition (DED). In-situ thermal and distortion histories of the substrate are measured in order to calibrate the 3D coupled thermo-mechanical model. Once the numerical results showed a good agreement with the temperature measurements, the validated model has been used to predict the residual stresses and distortions. Different process parameters have been analyzed to study their sensitivity to the process assessment. Different preheating strategies have been also analyzed to check their effectiveness on the mitigation of both distortions and residual stresses. Finally, some simplifications of the actual scanning sequence are proposed to reduce the computational cost without loss of the accuracy of the simulation framework.
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