Published in Additive Manufacturing Vol. 21, pp. 30-40, 2018
A three-dimensional (3D) thermomechanical coupled model for Laser Solid Forming (LSF) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been calibrated through experiments of 40-layers metal deposition using different scanning strategies. The sensitivity analysis of the mechanical parameters shows that the thermal expansion coefficient as well as the elastic limit of Ti-6Al-4V have a great impact on the mechanical behavior. Using the validated model and optimal mechanical parameters, the evolution of thermo-mechanical fields in LSF has been analyzed. It has been found that the stresses and distortions develop in two stages, after the deposition of the first layer and during the cooling phase after the manufacturing of the component. The cooling phase is the responsible of 70% of the residual stresses and 60% of the total distortions. The analyses indicate that by controlling the initial substrate temperature (pre-heating phase) and the final cooling phase it is possible to mitigate both distortion and residual stresses. Hence, the influence of different pre-heating procedures on the mechanical fields has been analyzed. The results show that increasing the pre-heating temperature of the substrate is the most effective way to reduce the distortions and residual stresses in Additive Manufacturing
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