With the rise of transportation electrification, autonomous driving and shared mobility in urban mobility systems, and increasing penetrations of distributed energy resources and autonomous demand-side management techniques in energy systems, tremendous opportunities, as well as challenges, are emerging in the forging of a sustainable and converged urban mobility and energy future. This paper is motivated by these disruptive transformations and gives an overview of managing autonomous mobility and energy services in future smart cities. First, we propose a three-layer architecture for the convergence of future mobility and energy systems. For each layer, we give a brief overview of the disruptive transformations that directly contribute to the rise of autonomous mobility-on-demand (AMoD) systems. Second, we propose the concept of autonomous flexibility-on-demand (AFoD), as an energy service platform built directly on existing infrastructures of AMoD systems. In the vision of AFoD, autonomous electric vehicles provide charging flexibilities as a service on demand in energy systems. Third, we analyze and compare AMoD and AFoD, and we identify four key decisions that, if appropriately coordinated, will create a synergy between AMoD and AFoD. Finally, we discuss key challenges towards the success of AMoD and AFoD in future smart cities and present some key research directions regarding the system-wide coordination between AMoD and AFoD.
Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure
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