The continuous network design problem (CNDP) is known to be difficult to solve due to the intrinsic properties of non-convexity and nonlinearity. Such kinds of CNDP can be formulated as a bi-level programme, in which the upper level represents the designer's decisions and the lower level the travellers' responses. Formulations of this kind can be classified as either Stackelberg approaches or Nash ones according to the relationship between the upper level and the lower level parts. This paper formulates the CNDP for road expansion based on Stackelberg game where leader and follower exist, and allows for variety of travellers' behaviour in choosing their routes. In order to solve the problem by the Stackelberg approach, we need a relation between link flows and design parameters. For this purpose, we use a logit route choice model, which provides this in an explicit closed-form function. This model is applied to two example road networks to test and briefly compare the results between the Stackelberg and Nash approaches to explore the differences between them.
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