During the early development of commercial air transportation, inflight icing was approached with a policy of avoidance. This policy was applied through a body of knowledge gained through experience. Pilots learned where and when to expect icing encounters, and they developed operational strategies to avoid it. However, the quality of forecasting was not sufficient to reliably predict icing encounters. Thus, manufacturers took the approach of equipping aircraft used in scheduled air transportation with ice protection systems. Currently, general aviation pilots still approach icing with a policy of avoidance. However, commercial transport pilots must rationalize a dual approach. While avoidance remains the best approach, the volume of air traffic and the constraints upon routing imposed by hub operations place heavy restrictions on the avoidance option. A study has been made of 120 accidents involving air carrier aircraft in the United States and, to a limited extent, Canada. The data from these accidents has been compiled and used to evaluate the paradigm is use today, and to identify changes necessary to improve the core knowledge possessed by the air carrier pilot.

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Published on 01/01/2003

Volume 2003, 2003
DOI: 10.2514/6.2003-21
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA license

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