Additive manufacturing (AM) is an advanced method of manufacturing complex parts layer by layer until the required design is achieved. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is used to produce parts with high resolution because of low layer thickness. L-PBF is based on laser beam and material interaction where the powder material is melted and then solidified. This occurs in a short time frame of the order of 0.02 seconds and makes the whole process challenging to be studied in real time. Studies have shown the development of numerical methods and the use of simulation software to understand the laser beam and material interaction. This phenomenon is key to understanding the material behavior under melting and mechanical properties of the part produced by L-PBF process as it is directly linked with the solidification of the melted powder material. A detailed study of the laser beam and material interaction is needed on a microscale and mesoscale level as it provides a better understanding and helps in the development of the given material for the L-PBF process. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the background for the use of simulation in AM and the different simulation scales of feature under interest. The main conclusion from this review is the need to develop a methodology to use simulation at micro and mesoscale level to understand the laser beam and material interaction and improve the efficiency of the L-PBF process using this data.
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