Published in Computational Mechanics, Vol. 54(1), pp. 85-107, 2014
We present a generalized Lagrangian formulation for analysis of industrial forming processes involving thermally coupled interactions between deformable continua. The governing equations for the deformable bodies are written in a unified manner that holds both for fluids and solids. The success of the formulation lays on a residual-based expression of the mass conservation equation obtained using the Finite Calculus (FIC) method that provides the necessary stability for quasi/fully incompressible situations. The governing equations are discretized with the FEM via a mixed formulation using simplicial elements with equal linear interpolation for the velocities, the pressure and the temperature. The merits of the formulation are demonstrated in the solution of 2D and 3D thermally-coupled forming processes using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM).