In this study, a new cost model is developed for CO2 pipeline transport, which starts with the physical properties of CO2 transport and includes different kinds of steel grades and up-to-date material and construction costs. This pipeline cost model is used for a new developed tool to determine the configuration leading to the lowest levelized costs for CO2 transport, for point-to-point pipelines as well as for simple networks on different types of terrain and for different time frames. The model optimizes inlet pressure, diameter, steel grade and number of pumping stations. Results show that gaseous CO2 transport can give lower levelized costs than liquid CO2 transport for point-to-point pipelines and for simple networks, if the CO2 is stored in a reservoir with a low required injection pressure, like depleted natural gas fields. However, for storage fields with a required injection pressure of 8 MPa or higher (like aquifers), CO2 can be better transported in a liquid form. For onshore pipelines transporting liquid CO2, the optimal inlet pressure is 9-13 MPa and pumping stations are installed roughly every 50-100 km. For offshore pipelines, pumping stations are not an option and the inlet pressure is determined by the length of the pipeline. The maximum inlet pressure is about 25 MPa and for even longer pipelines, a larger diameter is selected. The levelized costs (excluding initial compression) for transporting 100 kg/s (about 3 Mt/y) over 100 km are between 1.8 and 33 (sic)/t for liquid and 4.0-6.4 (sic)/t for gaseous CO2 transport. For larger mass flows the costs are decreasing, for instance transporting 200 kg/s (about 6 Mt/y) over 100 km are 1.2-1.8 (sic)/t for liquid and 3.0-3.8 (sic)/t for gaseous CO2 transport. Furthermore, results show that higher steel grades lead to lower investment costs for onshore pipelines transporting liquid CO2. Using X120 in the long term reduces the pipeline costs up to 17%. For gaseous CO2 transport, lower steel grades (like X42 and X52) are the best option. Also offshore pipelines do not benefit from the development of higher steel grades over time because the thickness should be at least 2.5% of the outer diameter. The results indicate that oversizing the pipeline, to transport CO2 from an additional source that is coming available later, is not always cost-attractive. This strongly depends on the time span of which further CO2 sources are available and on the mass flows. Oversizing appears earlier cost-attractive compared to two point-to-point pipelines if the source with the largest mass flow becomes available first. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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