Published in Metals, Vol. 9 (1), pp. 28-45, 2019
This work studies the effect of the tool tilt angle on the generated heat and the material flow in the work pieces joint by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). An apropos kinematic framework together with a two-stage speed-up strategy is adopted to simulate the FSW problem. The effect of tilt angle on the FSWelds is modeled through the contact condition by modifying an enhanced friction model. A rotated friction shear stress is proposed, the angle of rotation depending on the process parameters and the tilt angle. The proposed rotation angle is calibrated by the experimental data provided for a tilt angle 2.5◦. The differences of generated heat and material flow for the cases of tool with tilt angle of 0◦ and 2.5◦ are discussed. It is concluded that due to the higher temperature, softer material and greater frictional force in the trailing side of the tool, the material flow in the rear side of the FSW tool with the title angle is considerably enhanced, which assists to prevent the generation of defect.