The seismic response of masonry structures without box-type behaviour is given by a complex interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane behaviours. Previous earthquakes demonstrated that out-of-plane failure mechanisms represent the main cause of structural collapses of UnReinforced Masonry (URM) and historical structures. Previous experimental and analytical studies, investigating the out-of-plane behaviour of URM structures, mostly considered the effects of one-way bending moment. In this regard, recent experimental campaigns and numerical simulations have been conducted in order to investigate the out-ofplane behaviour of masonry walls subjected to two-way bending. These investigations have demonstrated the complexity of this mechanism and stressed the need for accurate numerical tools capable of providing reliable predictions in terms of ultimate strength and failure mechanisms. This paper focuses on the assessment of the dynamic behaviour of a U-shape URM prototype, subjected to shaking table tests, by means of a simplified computational strategy denoted as Discrete Macro-Element Method (DMEM). In this investigation, a comparison between experimental and numerical results was conducted in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed modelling approach. Subsequently, a parametric analysis was carried aiming at determining the influence that masonry mechanical properties, and additional model parameters, have on the out-of-plane nonlinear dynamic response of URM masonry structures.
 H. Derakhshan, M. C. Griffith, and J. M. Ingham, "Out-of-Plane Behavior of One-Way Spanning Unreinforced Masonry Walls," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 139, pp. 409-417, (2013).
 O. Penner and K. J. Elwood, "Out-of-Plane Dynamic Stability of Unreinforced Masonry Walls in One-Way Bending: Shake Table Testing," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 32, pp. 1675–1697, (2016).
 T. M. Ferreira, A. A. Costa, R. Vicente, and H. Varum, "A simplified four-branch model for the analytical study of the out-of-plane performance of regular stone URM walls,"Engineering Structures, vol. 83, pp. 140-153, (2015).
 F. Graziotti, U. Tomassetti, A. Penna, and G. Magenes, "Out-of-plane shaking table tests on URM single leaf and cavity walls," Engineering Structures, vol. 125, (2016).
 P. X. Candeias, A. Campos Costa, N. Mendes, A. A. Costa, and P. B. Lourenço, "Experimental Assessment of the Out-of-Plane Performance of Masonry Buildings Through Shaking Table Tests," International Journal of Architectural Heritage, vol. 11, pp. 31-58, (2017).
 J. Vaculik and M. C. Griffith, "Out-of-plane shaketable testing of unreinforced masonry walls in two-way bending," Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 16, pp. 2839–2876, (2017).
 F. Graziotti, U. Tomassetti, S. Sharma, L. Grottoli, and G. Magenes, "Experimental response of URM single leaf and cavity walls in out-of-plane two-way bending generated by seismic excitation," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 195, pp. 650-670, (2019).
 G. de Felice, S. De Santis, P. B. Lourenço, and N. Mendes, "Methods and Challenges for the Seismic Assessment of Historic Masonry Structures," International Journal of Architectural Heritage, vol. 11, pp. 143-160, (2017).
 F. Cannizzaro, B. Pantò, S. Caddemi, and I. Caliò, "A Discrete Macro-Element Method (DMEM) for the nonlinear structural assessment of masonry arches," Engineering Structures, vol. 168, pp. 243-256, (2018).
U. Tomassetti, L. Grottoli, S. Sharma, and F. Graziotti, "Dataset from dynamic shake-table testing of five full-scale single leaf and cavity URM walls subjected to out-of-plane twoway bending," Data in Brief, vol. 24, (2019).
I. Caliò, M. Marletta, and B. Pantò, "A new discrete element model for the evaluation of the seismic behaviour of unreinforced masonry buildings," Engineering Structures, vol. 40, pp. 237-338, (2012).
B. Pantò, F. Cannizzaro, I. Caliò, and P. B. Lourenço, "Numerical and experimental validation of a 3D macro-model for the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry walls," International Journal of Architectural Heritage, (2017). doi: 10.1080/15583058.2017.1325539
T. Takeda, M. A. Sozen, and N. N. Nielsen, "Reinforced concrete response to simulated earthquakes," Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 96, pp. 2557-2573, (1970).
V. Turnsek and F. Cacovic, "Some experimental result on the strength of brick masonry walls," in 2nd International Brick Masonry Conference, Stoke-on-Trent, UK (1971).
C. Chácara, F. Cannizzaro, B. Pantò, I. Caliò, and P. B. Lourenço, "Assessment of the Dynamic Response of Unreinforced Masonry Structures using a Macro-Element Modelling Approach," Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, vol. 47, pp. 2426-46, (2018).
 Gruppo Sismica s.r.l., "HiStrA (Historical Structure Analysis)," (2015), Catania, Italy, Release 17.2.3, http://www.histra.it.
Are you one of the authors of this document?