Once an earthquake has occurred, the inspection of the buildings should be carried out as quickly as possible, in order to reduce the risk and discomfort of the people. This means that it is not possible to perform a detailed evaluation, making a complete geometric survey of the building, taking samples for a detailed analysis of the seismic pathology and performing a numerical analysis using computers. On the contrary, damage assessments and the habitability of buildings should be carried out based on visual inspection and expert judgment. This monograph aims to develop a general methodology for the inspection and classification of buildings affected by an earthquake. It starts by collecting and analyzing the information existing in different countries on the main methodologies of damage assessment and habitability, in order to compare different approaches and identify the necessary bases to propose a methodology for the evaluation of buildings affected by earthquakes. Then, it establishes the procedure to be used to assess the damage and the safety of the buildings after an earthquake. Finally, it proposes a form, of quick and easy application, for the inspection and classification of buildings affected by an earthquake, according to their state of damage and their level of security.